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The Tianshan Radio Experiment for Neutrino Detectio n. Olivier Martineau-Huynh NAOC G&C lunch talk May 28, 2014. Milky Way over 21CM array ( Gu Junhua ). Physics with UHE cosmic neutrinos. UHE neutrinos as a tool to study violent phenomena in the Universe

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the tianshan radio experiment for neutrino detectio n

The Tianshan Radio Experiment for Neutrino Detection

Olivier Martineau-Huynh

NAOC G&C lunch talk May 28, 2014

MilkyWay over 21CM array (GuJunhua)

physics with uhe cosmic neutrinos
Physicswith UHE cosmic neutrinos
  • UHE neutrinos as a tool to study violent phenomena in the Universe
    • One example: youngextragalactic pulsars

(Ke Fang et al., arXiv:1311.2044)

      • UHE heavynucleiemmited (= UHECRs)
      • Interaction with supernova ejecta
      • p+ l +nl(= UHE neutrinos)
physics with uhe cosmic neutrinos1
Physicswith UHE cosmic neutrinos
  • GZK neutrinos

p+gCMB D+p+ + n.

p+ l +nl.

Great tool to studyUHECRs.

GZK suppression?

Ahlers et al., arxiv:1208.4181

physics with uhe cosmic neutrinos2
Physicswith UHE cosmic neutrinos
  • Lots of physicswith neutrinos above 1016eV
    • Test of pulsars, AGN, GRBs,
    • Test of UHECRs propagation
    • Probe distant Universe
  • Downside: neutrino detection challenge + low flux @ UHE…

Need for cheap / scalable /easilymaintainabledetector.

neutrino detection
Neutrino detection
  • Elusive particle

requires dense & large target:

    • Ice: detection of showerinitiated by n NC interaction
    • Ground

ARIANA project

1400m

ICECUBE

1000m

birth of neutrino astronomy
Birth of neutrino astronomy
  • IceCube2012&2013
    • Milestone in astronomy&astrophysics but:
    • Angularreconstruction for showerevents?
    • ~1 event/yearabove250TeV.
slide7

Neutrino detection

nt

t

Target = Earth

Extensive air shower

Radio detection

Eth ~1017 eV

  • Earth + mountains as target for neutrino interaction (AUGER-type)
  • Radio detection of subsequent EAS (good at large zenith angles)
eas radiodetection principle

Bgeo

F = qvBgeo

-

+

EAS radiodetection: principle
  • Acceleration of relativistic charged particles in the Earth magnetic field (Kahn & Lerche, 1965): geosynchrotron emission

Bgeo

  • Coherent effect
  • detectable radio emission
  • (~100ns & 10s µV/m)
giant radio array for neutrino detection
Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection
  • 100’000 antennas over 60’000km² wouldmake the best UHE neutrino observatory.

(sensitivityevaluation TBC by

full MC)

  • Major challenge: n identification over background

The GRAND project

Esh=1018eV

q=90°

472 antennastriggered

radio background
Radio background

TREND-50 antennas

radio array:

- 1.5km²

- 220 days data subset

- 1.2 1010 triggers recorded

- 1.4 109coincidences

~0.2Hz eventrate

over TREND-50 array

(physicalorigin)

Expected EAS trigger rate:

~100 events/day for E>1017 eV

TREND antenna

Reconstrcuted source position

Background rejection is a key issue for EAS radio-detection.

Background sources: HV lines, radio emiters, train, cars, planes, thunderstorms…

autonomous eas radio detection with the trend 50 setup
Autonomous EAS radio-detectionwith the TREND-50 setup
  • 50 antennasdeployedin summer-automn 2010, total surface ~1.5km².
  • Stable operationsinceJanuary 2011.
  • Goal: establishpossibility for autonomous radio detection of EAS.

TREND-15

(2010)

TREND-50

~1.5 km²

background rejection
Background rejection
  • Background:
  • Close source:
  • - Sphericalwavefront
  • Fast drop of amplitude whenmoving
  • awayfrom source.
  • Distant source:
  • ~ Plane wavefront
  • ~ Constant amplitude
  • Both: correlated in time & direction.
  • EAS signal
  • ~ Plane wavefront.
  • Fast drop of amplitude whenmovingawayfromshower axis.
  • Random time and direction

Shower axis

Radio cone

EAS signal

Background

trend 50 eas candidates
TREND-50 EAS candidates

EAS simulation

Proton showers @ 1017eV

(halfsky)

2011-2012 data

(Antennasoriented EW):

396 candidates in 320 live days.

90°

90°

60°

60°

30°

30°

West

90°

West

90°

South

90°

South

90°

trend 50 eas candidates1
TREND-50 EAS candidates

Data (norm)

Simu (norm)

  • Good match between data & EAS simulation:
  • TREND-50 was able to identify EAS withlimited background contamination.
  • Still a preliminaryresult:
    • Simulation statistics to beincreased.
    • Analysiscuts to beapplied to simulated data.
    • If theyremain, discepencies to beunderstood (e.g. large q values)

Data (norm)

Simu (norm)

n induced shower radiodetection
n - inducedshowerradiodetection
  • Identification of standard EAS OK statistically (TREND-50).
  • Neutrino detection:
    • Verybad Signal/Noise ratio: TREND-50 ID method not reliableenough.
    • Looking for horizontal showers: amplitude pattern at groundnot as specific as for standard ones

Shower axis

Shower axis

Standard EAS signal:

focusedgroundpatern & rapid drop of amplitude

n-induced (~horizontal) shower:

no significant variation of amplitude alongshower axis

(but OK in lateral direction)

polarization measurment
Polarizationmeasurment
  • EAS radio emissionispolarized: at first orderF = qv.Bgeo

Linearpolarity, withP Bgeo & P shower direction

Showercore

(q=66°, j = 354°)

z

b ~89° on all antennas

h ~7° on all antennas

b

P

x

h

Trigerredantennas

y

grand proto
GRAND-proto
  • Polarizationmeasurment = powerfull identification tool for EAS?
  • Test setup: «GRAND-proto»
    • 35 3-polar antennasfor a complete polar measurment (h = atan(Vy/Vx) & b = atan(Vz/Vplan).
    • 6 antennas in test at present.
    • 21 scintillators for EAS offline validation (IHEP)
    • Full setup in summer 2015.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Neutrinos are a powerfulltool for astrophysics (violent phenomena multi-messengerapproach)
  • Giant radio arrayscouldbe the mostadequate instrument for theirdetection.
  • Main challenge: background rejection
  • TREND-50 results (very) encouraging, GRAND-proto promising!