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Introduction to Water Distribution. Water Solutions February 2007 Class #7 – 33 slides. Instrumentation and Control. Basics of electricity, units and current flow Lock-out & tag-out Electronic controls; SCADA Safety regulations; OSHA

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Introduction to water distribution l.jpg

Introduction to Water Distribution

Water Solutions

February 2007

Class #7 – 33 slides

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Basics of electricity, units and current flow

  • Lock-out & tag-out

  • Electronic controls; SCADA

  • Safety regulations; OSHA

  • Safety for trenching, shoring & confined space – respiratory protection

  • Management – public relations & records

  • Drinking Water Regulations

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  • Units

  • Current flow

  • Circuits

  • Horsepower

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Electric power & phase

  • Single phase

  • Three phase

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Instrumentation and Control

    Instruments are:

    Devices that allow the operator to monitor and control flow rates, levels, pressures and other parameters within the distribution system.

    Operators are responsible for supervision

    and control

    Supervision means the review and assessment of system performance and making decisions based upon the information provided. Control is the function performed by the operator to change the system to meet expectations.

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Instrumentation

    • Primary Instrumentation

      • Sensors

        • Flow, pressure, level, temperature etc.

    • Secondary Instrumentation

      • Respond to and display information from primary instruments

        • Charts, Recorders, monitoring equipment

    • Control Systems

      • Manual, automatic and digital systems that operate final control elements such as pumps and valves

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Primary Instrumentation

    • Basic Instrument Components

      • (a) Flow Sensors

        • Differential-Pressure flow meters

        • Velocity-type flow meters

        • Other flow meters

      • (b) Pressure Sensors

        • Strain Gauges

        • Direct-reading pressure gauges

      • (c) Level Sensors

        • Float Mechanism

        • Diaphragm Elements

        • Bubbler Tubes

        • Direct Electronic Sensors

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Primary Instrumentation

    • (d) Temperature Sensors

    • (e) Electrical and Equipment Sensors

      • Electrical Sensors

        • Voltage

        • Current

        • Resistance

        • Power

      • Equipment status monitors

    • (f) Process Analyzers

      • Turbidity

      • pH monitors

      • Chlorine residual monitors

      • Particle counters

      • SCD or Streaming Current Monitors

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Secondary Instrumentation

    • Pneumatic and Electronic signal transmission

      • Receivers and Indicators

        • Direct reading display

        • Recorder

        • Totalizer

        • Combination

      • Telemetry

        • Transmitter

        • Transmission channel

        • receiver

      • Telemetry transmission channels

        • Analog Signal Systems

        • Digital Signal Systems

        • Multiplexing

        • Scanning

        • Polling

        • Duplexing

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Control Systems

    • Control Classifications

      • Direct Manual Control

        • Operator directly operates the switches or levers that control the equipment

      • Remote manual control

        • Operator directly controls the equipment and is required to push a button or switch, but from a remote location.

      • Semiautomatic Control

        • Combines manual or remote control with automatic control function for a piece of equipment. (operator turns it on manually, device shuts off automatically)

      • Automatic Control

        • Equipment is brought on or off in response to signals from instruments.

          • On-off differential control

          • Proportional Control

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Control Systems

    • Information Flow

    • Direct Wire and Supervisory Control

    • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

      • System Components

        • Remote Terminal Units

        • Communications (telemetry transmission)

        • Master StationHuman –Machine Interface

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Instrumentation and Control

  • SCADA System

    • Master Station

      • Centralized computer control

      • Distributed computer control

    • Human-Machine Interface

      • Graphic interface

    • Maintenance of sensors and transmitters

      • 4-20 ma circuit verification

      • Calibration is important for operation

      • Calibration is a requirement!

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Instrumentation and Control

  • Lock-out/tag-out

  • Generators and transformers

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Information Management

  • Information Management

    • Computers

      • Supervisory Control

      • Data retention and reports

      • System Analysis

      • Records and Inventory Control

    • Maps and Records

      • Up to date maps and records.

      • Digitized if possible

    • Distribution system maps and records

      • Mapped records

      • Construction drawings

      • Card Reports

      • Statistical Records

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Information Management

  • Mapped Records

    • Three principal types of mapped records:

      • Comprehensive Maps

        • Outline whole system

      • Sectional Maps

        • More detail picture on a larger scale

      • Valve and hydrant maps

        • Pinpoint valve and hydrant locations within system

    • Comprehensive Map

      • Street names

      • Water Mains

      • Size of mains

      • Reservoirs and Tanks

      • Pump Stations

      • Water Sources

      • Scale of map (500-1,000 ft to 1 inch)

    • Sectional Map

      • Scale of map (50-100 ft to 1 inch)

      • Materials of mains

      • Date of main installation

      • Distance from property line

      • Hydrants and numbers

      • Valves and numbers

      • Water accounts and numbers

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Information Management

  • Mapped Records

    • Section Maps

      • Sections are numbered 1234 from North to South and ABCD from East to West. (Township / Range / Section)

    • Valve and Hydrant maps

      • Used to pinpoint valve and hydrant location by field crews

        • Plat and list (500ft to 1 inch)

        • Intersection (20-30ft to 1 inch)

    • Plan and Profile Drawings

      • Used in Construction: show pipe depths and locations and other information.

    • Supplemental Mapped Records

      • Arterial Maps

        • Scale 2,000-4,000 ft to 1 inch

        • Pressure Zone Map

        • Leak Map

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Information Management

  • Card Records

    • Contain information not included on system maps such as:

      • Type, size and description of valves and hydrants

      • Direction to open for each

      • Number of turns to open and a history of each

    • Card Records can also be used to:

      • Provide a service history of valves, hydrants and mains

    • Card Records should:

      • Be cross referenced to a map for ease of access of information

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Information Management

  • Statistical Records

    • Used to report construction progress and growth.

      • Mains – Summarize total length for each size of main laid or retired

      • Valve and Hydrants – Total number of valves and hydrants for each given size

      • Service statistics document total length of each size line laid. Number and size of corp stops and identification of ownership

      • Meter records report the number and size and type of each meter in the system.

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Information Management

  • Computerized Maintenance Management

    • Reporting

      • Tracking of labor and materials

      • Identification of budgetary needs

    • Preventative Maintenance

      • Scheduling of maintenance activities usually based upon manufacturer recommendations.

    • Equipment Histories

      • Maintenance history maintained for (1-5 years)

        • Repair vs. replacement decision

    • System Integration

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Information Management

  • Computerized Maintenance Management

    • Source-of-Supply systems

      • Quality and quantity of raw water.

    • Laboratory Information Management System

      • Collects, stores and processes water quality information

    • Leakage control and emergency response

      • Monitoring of leakage to gain insight into system health

      • Tracking of system components to assist in emergency situations.

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  • First Aid

  • Fire

  • OSHA

  • Trenching

  • Traffic Control

  • Confined space

  • Heavy equipment

  • Power tools

  • Lock out tag out

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First Aid

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  • Types of fires

  • Types of Fire extinguishers

  • Fire extinguisher regulations

  • Special Water System Issues

    • Chlorine gas

    • Electricity

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OSHA Compliance

  • Trenching

  • Confined space

  • Lock out tag out

  • Signage

  • Material Data Safety Sheets

  • Respiratory protection required

  • Education

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  • Depths

  • Spoil setback

  • Cave in protection

  • Egress

  • Types of soil

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Traffic Control

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Confined Space “A” “B” “C”

  • What is a confined space? Areas such as manholes, storage tanks, pumping stations, and other spaces with limited openings for entry or exit that are not meant to be continuously occupied.

  • Who is at risk: Workers whose jobs involve street and highways, utilities, public works department, water and wastewater.

  • Hazards: The air in confined spaces can contain too little oxygen to breathe, or there can be a danger from explosion, fire, or poisonous gases. Chemicals, infectious diseases, and safety hazards can also be present.

  • Prevention: Checking for possible explosive and fire hazards in the air, using ventilation to provide air that is safe to breathe, using protective equipment, and being ready to make a safe rescue.

  • Laws: The text of OSHA's Permit-required confined spaces standard, 29 CFR 1910.146, is at:

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Heavy equipment

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Power tools

  • Ground Fault interupter (GFI)

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Water Utility Management

  • Customer Service

  • Public relations

  • Emergency response

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  • Drinking water rules are in Title 22

  • Several American Water Works Association Standards are the LAW!

  • C-651 Main disinfection

  • C-652 Tank Disinfection

  • Water works standards

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What if regulations….

  • Positive bacteria

  • Customer complaints