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Introduction to Water Distribution. Water Solutions Inc 2006 Class #5 – 79 Slides. Hydrants & Meters. Types of hydrants & parts Hydrant inspection & installation Meter types, reading & testing Meter maintenance & repair Backflow and Cross connection terminology, types & locations

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Introduction to Water Distribution


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    1. Introduction to Water Distribution Water Solutions Inc 2006 Class #5 – 79 Slides www.h2osolutions.com

    2. Hydrants & Meters • Types of hydrants & parts • Hydrant inspection & installation • Meter types, reading & testing • Meter maintenance & repair • Backflow and Cross connection terminology, types & locations • Types of Corrosion & monitoring systems www.h2osolutions.com

    3. www.h2osolutions.com

    4. Fire Hydrants • Who maintains them? • Mostly the water utilities • Few communities the fire dept does. • Fire Hydrants are for public protection. • Failure to maintain and ensure operation can lead to the utility becoming liable for damage due to fire in event hydrant does not work. www.h2osolutions.com

    5. Fire Hydrants • Placement of Hydrants • Other uses of Fire Hydrants • Flushing of water mains • Flushing sewers • Supply for street washers other municipal functions • Water source for construction jobs www.h2osolutions.com

    6. Fire Hydrants • Other uses of Fire Hydrants • Hydrants on dead ends • Hydrants on busy streets • Hydrants in locations with high groundwater • Everyone who uses hydrants should be instructed in their proper operation www.h2osolutions.com

    7. Fire Hydrants • Hydrant operation • Hydrants should only be placed on mains 6” or larger • Mains must have a minimum pressure of 20psi during fire flow demand • Hydrant operation can disturb sediments and increase customer complaints • Hydrants should always be closed slowly to reduce water hammer www.h2osolutions.com

    8. www.h2osolutions.com

    9. Fire Hydrants • Types of Hydrants • Dry-Barrel Hydrants • Wet-Barrel Hydrants • Warm climate hydrants • Flush Hydrants www.h2osolutions.com

    10. Fire Hydrants • Dry-Barrel Hydrant • Wet-Top • Dry-Top • Main valve and drain in base • Main valve opens and fills barrel with water. When main valve is closed the drain opens (at same time as main valve closes) and drains hydrant barrel. www.h2osolutions.com

    11. Fire Hydrants • Dry-Barrel Hydrant (page 160) (Valve Classification) • Standard Compression • Valve closes against pressure • Slide Gate Hydrant • Main valve is a simple gate valve • Toggle (Corey) • Valve closes horizontally and barrel extends below branch line www.h2osolutions.com

    12. Wet-Top • Operating rod or main rod stays submerged when barrel is wet • Dry-Top • Packing isolates threaded end of main rod from water when barrel is wet www.h2osolutions.com

    13. Fire Hydrants • Dry-Barrel Hydrant (page 162) fig 6-8 (Breakaway) • Barrel designed to “break” on impact limiting damage to upper part of barrel. Operating rod also designed to “break” • Minimizes costs and time of repairs. www.h2osolutions.com

    14. www.h2osolutions.com

    15. www.h2osolutions.com

    16. www.h2osolutions.com

    17. Fire Hydrants • Warm Climate Hydrants • Two part barrel (lower) is filled with water at all times with main valve at ground level to separate upper barrel • No drain mechanism www.h2osolutions.com

    18. Fire Hydrants • Wet Barrel Hydrants • Barrel is filled with water at all times • NO main valve, instead each nozzle has a valve. • Cannot be used in areas that are subject to freezing • Large water waste if damaged in traffic www.h2osolutions.com

    19. www.h2osolutions.com

    20. Fire Hydrants • Flush Hydrants • Entirely below ground • Usually Dry-Barrel type • Airport aprons & Taxiway’s • Pedestrian malls • Other areas where above ground obstructions are undesirable or cause a safety hazard www.h2osolutions.com

    21. www.h2osolutions.com

    22. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Parts • Upper Section • Nozzle or “head” of hydrant • 5-sided operating nut usually at top of hydrant • Cap or “bonnet” over barrel of hydrant • Outlet nozzles • Threaded bronze – NAS Threads – (may differ) • (2) 2 ½” and (1) 4 ½ nozzles • Cast iron nozzle caps with nut to match operating nut www.h2osolutions.com

    23. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Parts • Lower Section • Lower Barrel, Main Valve and Base • Lower Barrel carries water between base and upper barrel (conduit) • Buried so connection between upper barrel is 2” above ground. • Main Valve • Operating stem, resilient valve gasket & other parts • Base • Cast Iron and houses valve assembly • Flanged to connect to main www.h2osolutions.com

    24. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Parts • Auxiliary Valves • Isolation Valve • Allows isolation of hydrant for repair or maintenance • Attached to flanges of Base (hydrant) and Main (supply) www.h2osolutions.com

    25. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Inspection • Inspection checklist to include: • Direction to open hydrant • Counterclockwise and marked on hydrant –open to stops • Size & shape of operating nut • Depth of bury • Distance to main below surface • Size and type of inlet connection • Did you get what you ordered • Main valve size • Outlet nozzle sizes & configuration • Nozzle thread dimensions www.h2osolutions.com

    26. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Installation • Installation considerations • Location • Set back 2’ from curbing • Pumper nozzle always faces the street • Footing and Blocking • Set on footing that will not rot or settle • Must be plumb (perfectly vertical) • Must be blocked to protect from movement “thrust” – excavation to retain undisturbed earth for block Common to use two shackles to connect base to main • Drainage • Color www.h2osolutions.com

    27. www.h2osolutions.com

    28. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Installation • Testing • Hydrants should be pressure tested separate from the main • Open hydrant fully & fill with water • Vent air from hydrant • Apply pressure, up to maximum of 150psi • Check for leaks • Repair or replace components that leak www.h2osolutions.com

    29. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Operation • Operated by (1) person with a 15” wrench • Dry-barrel hydrant should always have main valve opened or closed 100% • Failure to do so will leave drain valve partially open and loss of flow/water will occur • Main valves are not designed to throttle flow and should not be used to do so www.h2osolutions.com

    30. Fire Hydrants • Fire Hydrant Maintenance • Visual Inspection • Listen for seat leakage • Check mechanical components • Actuate valve to test components • Drain • Operating Nut • Preventative Maintenance • Lubricate applicable components www.h2osolutions.com

    31. Fire Hydrants • Hydrant Flow Testing • As mains age and systems expand flow testing should be performed to: • Determine the need for additional feeder or arterial mains • Determine the condition of the pipe & schedule cleaning if necessary. • Records should be kept of all hydrants www.h2osolutions.com

    32. Fire Hydrants • Hydrant Safety • Hydrants can cause injury or problems if: • The full force of the water comes in contact with persons • Freezing temperatures and streams from hydrants can cause slick surfaces • Pedestrians as well as traffic • Potential cross connections to sewers • Connected hoses must be secured or they may flail about and strike someone www.h2osolutions.com

    33. Water Meters www.h2osolutions.com

    34. Types of Water Meters • Positive-displacement meters • Compound meters • Current meters • Detector-check meters • Proportional meters • Venturi meters • Orifice meters • Pitometers • Magnetic meters • Sonic meters www.h2osolutions.com

    35. Water Meters • Large-Customer Meters (Compound Meters) • Large Customers = Municipal / Industrial / Commercial • Compound Meters • Current Meters • Detector Check Meters www.h2osolutions.com

    36. www.h2osolutions.com

    37. Water Meters • Meter Sizing • Expected maximum demand for year • Pressure at point of connection • Friction losses in service line, meter and plumbing • Range of flow rates expected on service • Meter typically installed one size smaller than the service • Residential Meters • Most are 5/8 or ¾ inch • Commercial Meters • Most are 1-2” • Flushometer toilets may require larger meter • Meter guidelines www.h2osolutions.com

    38. Water Meter Installation • General Considerations: • Not Installed in area where flooding w/ non-potable water is a problem • Up and downstream shut off for repair • Horizontal installation • Accessible • Easy to read either visually or remotely • Not a hazard to public • Seals attached to register to prevent tampering • Supported if larger installations • By-pass or multiple meters on larger services to prevent discontinuation of service if repair is needed. • BENEFITS OF A MANIFOLD www.h2osolutions.com

    39. Water Meters • Manifold Installation • Benefits of a manifold • In a manifold installation all but one of the meters should have a backpressure valve on the outlet. This will allow subsequent meters to “register” only as flow increases. www.h2osolutions.com

    40. Water Meters • Meter Connections • Screwed (Up to 1”) • Flanged • Meter Installation (indoor & outdoor) • Maximum and minimum heights • Types of meters • Access to meters • Large Meter installation • Supported • Adequate work space –20” from vertical walls and 24” of head space from highest point on meter • Thrust Blocking if necessary www.h2osolutions.com

    41. Water Meters • Meter Reading • Gallons or Cubic Feet • May have multiplier 10X or 1,000X • Circular or straight • Direct Readout (Problematic ?) • Remote Reading • Signal is pulsed to a remote totalizer • Plug in readers • Electronic meter reading (Scanning) • Automatic meter reading www.h2osolutions.com

    42. www.h2osolutions.com

    43. Water Meters • Meter Testing • Testing Frequency • Meters wear and may not register at low flows. • Meter Test Procedure • Run a variety of flow rates through meter to determine meter efficiency • Pass known quantities of water through meter at various flow rates • Meet accuracy limits on different rates www.h2osolutions.com

    44. Water Meters • Meter Repair • Dismantling the meter • Cleaning the parts • Inspection of parts for wear • Replacing or repairing parts as necessary • Reassembly • Retest the meter • Replacement vs. Repair • Meter Records • Installation / Repair & History documented www.h2osolutions.com

    45. Water Meters • Mainline Meters • Current • Proportional • Venturi • Orifice • Magnetic • Ultrasonic www.h2osolutions.com

    46. Cross Connection www.h2osolutions.com

    47. Cross-Connection Control • Definitions • Backflow • Flow of any liquid, gas, or other substances back into a potable water system • Backpressure • Backsiphonage • Cross-Connections • Any physical connection or structural arrangement that would allow backflow or backsiphonage between a potable water system and any other water source or system to occur. www.h2osolutions.com

    48. Cross-Connection Control • Public Health Impact • Health impacts can result due to cross connections as a result of: • Improper design and construction of system • Modifications to existing system and structures • Cost cutting on plumbing and backflow devices • Failure to test and repair backflow prevention devices www.h2osolutions.com

    49. www.h2osolutions.com

    50. Cross-Connection Control • Public Health Impact • Diseases attributed to cross-connections • Dysentery • Gastroenteritis • Hepatitis • Salmonellas • Chemical contamination attributed to cross-connections • Fertilizers • Pesticides • Boiler-chemical contamination www.h2osolutions.com