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An Introduction to Environmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM). Mirmosadegh Jamali Department of Civil Engineering Sharif University of Technology March 8, 2003. What is EFM?. The study of flow and transport in surface water, groundwater, and atmosphere. Environmental significance

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An introduction to environmental fluid mechanics efm
An Introduction toEnvironmental Fluid Mechanics (EFM)

Mirmosadegh Jamali

Department of Civil Engineering

Sharif University of Technology

March 8, 2003


What is efm
What is EFM?

  • The study of flow and transport in surface water, groundwater, and atmosphere.

    • Environmental significance

    • Heat and mass transfer

    • Turbulence and mixing

    • Stratification


Stratification
Stratification

  • Most fluids are density stratified

    • Variations in temperature, salinity, etc.

  • Very small density differences

    • Enhance horizontal motions

    • Inhibit vertical mixing

    • Have important environmental consequences


Research in efm
Research in EFM

  • MIT

  • Stanford University

  • University of California at Berkeley

  • University of British Columbia


Examples of topics in efm
Examples of topics in EFM

  • Dispersion of contaminants in rivers, lakes, seas, groundwater, and atmosphere

  • Dynamics of lakes and reservoirs

  • Internal waves

  • Selective withdrawal

  • Two-layer hydraulics

  • Wave interaction

  • Hydrodynamic Stability

  • Numerical, analytical, or laboratory modeling













An introduction to environmental fluid mechanics efm 1328863

Closure Plan

ARD

  • Flooded pit as passive treatment system for ARD:

    1. dilution.

    2. neutralization.

    3. sulphide-metal precipitation by anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria.

Local Precipitation

~ 7 m

Brackish Water Cap

Buoyant

ARD

Plume

Anoxic Salt Water

~ 215 m




An introduction to environmental fluid mechanics efm 1328863

Profiles in the Pit Lake

Upper Layer

Intermediate

Layer

Depth (m)

Lower

Layer



Selective withdrawal system
Selective-withdrawal system

Selective withdrawal system installed in 1995

Hungry Horse dam, built in 1952


Internal waves
Internal Waves

  • A major type of motion within a stratified body

  • Play an important role in mixing and transport in reservoir

  • Long characteristic time-scale



Standing surface and internal waves
Standing surface and internal waves

  • Photos:

  • 1st external mode

  • 1st internal mode

  • 2nd external mode

  • 2nd internal mode

  • 3rd internal mode




An introduction to environmental fluid mechanics efm 1328863

Exprimental Simulation

Numerical Simulation





Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Many environmental problems are fluid mechanics problems

  • EFM is a fast-growing multidisciplinary field in fluid mechanics

  • Many unexplored problems in EFM