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## Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

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**Introduction to Fluid Mechanics**Chapter 11 Open-Channel Flow**Main Topics**• Steady Uniform Flow • Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force • Steady, Gradually Varied Flow • Rapidly Varied Flow • Discharge Measurement**Steady Uniform Flow**• Control Volume**Steady Uniform Flow**• Chezy Equation • Chezy Coefficient**Steady Uniform Flow**• Manning Equation (SI) • Manning Equation (US Customary)**Steady Uniform Flow**• Manning Roughness Coefficients**Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force**• Specific Energy**Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force**• Froude Number Criterion • Froude Number Criterion (Rectangular Channel)**Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force**• Momentum Equation**Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force**• Momentum Equation (Steady State)**Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force**• Specific Force**Specific Energy, Momentum Equation, and Specific Force**• Critical Flow Examples**Steady, Gradually Varied Flow**• Differential Equation**Rapidly Varied Flow**• Example: Hydraulic Jump**Rapidly Varied Flow**• Hydraulic Jump (Continued)**Discharge MeasurementUsing Weirs**• Example (Sharp Crested Weir)**Discharge MeasurementUsing Weirs**• Suppressed Rectangular Weir • Contracted Rectangular Weir Effective Length**Discharge MeasurementUsing Weirs**• Triangular Weir**Discharge MeasurementUsing Weirs**• Broad-Crested Weir