Ch. 19: Blood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ch. 19: Blood

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  1. Ch. 19: Blood Fluid connective tissue with cells suspended in a fluid matrix

  2. Cardiovascular system • Cardio = heart; acts as pump • Vascular = series of tubes; connections • Body has over 75 trillion total cells

  3. 19.1 Functions of Blood • TRANSPORT and DELIVERY of nutrients like sugar and amino acids, O2, elimination of wastes like NH4 • Cells without blood supply die in about 4 minutes • DEFENSE of the body • Antigens and antibodies of immune system • REGULATION of ions and pH • CLOTTING to decrease blood volume lost • Regulation of TEMPERATURE

  4. Physical Characteristics of Blood • “whole blood” • 38 C or 100 F • 5X viscosity of water • 7.35 – 7.45 pH • Volume = 7% of mass • 150 pounds = roughly 5 L ( or 5 quarts) • Full grown adult male – 5 to 5.5 L • Full grown adult female – 4 to 5 L

  5. 19.2 Plasma • 46 – 63 % of blood volume • 7 % proteins = albumin (60% for pressure), globulin (35 % antibodies), fibrinogen (4 % clotting), mostly from the liver • 1 % solutes = fatty acids, amino acids, Na, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, HCO3, HPO4, SO4 • 92 % water • Ringer’s solution • Isotonic saline solution used to maintain volume; doesn’t carry any O2 • Artificial Blood – current research

  6. 19.3 Formed elements • 37 – 54 % of blood • < 1 % platelets • < 1% WBC (white blood cells) • 99% RBC (red blood cells)

  7. 19.3 Red Blood Cells • 260 million RBS in every ‘drop’ of blood • Total amount ~ 25 trillion RBCs in 5 L • 1000 RBC : 1 WBC • Biconcave disc for maximum SA : Vol • Stack as they go through capillaries • Lose nuclei – so can not divide • Last 120 days ( 700 miles) • Formed in red marrow, liver, spleen, thymus by erythropoiesis • Recycled by liver , spleen and marrow

  8. 19.4 Blood Typing • Over 50 surface antigens • Only usually worry about A/B and Rh +/- • Is blood is mis-matched agglutination (clumping or clotting) will occur • Type (genetic genotype) antigen antibodies get given to • “A” (AA, AO) A B A, O A • “B” (BB, BO) B A B, O B • “AB” (AB) A and B none A, B, AB, O AB • “O” (OO) “zero” A and B O All

  9. 19.5 White Blood Cells • White because lack hemoglobin ( leuko = white) • Seen with Wrights stain • All can migrate through connective tissues • All can do amoeboid movement • All have positive chemotaxis • Neutrinophils, eosinophils and monocytes can all perform phagocytosis.

  10. WBC Types • Granular • Neutrinophils; 1st to injury, nonspecific • Eosinophils; attack cells with anitbodies, parasitic infections, nonspecific, increase during allergic reactions • Basophils; histamine, dilation of blood vessels, nonspecific • Agranular • Monocytes; phagocytic, nonspecific • Lymphocytes ; specific immune reactions • T cells – cell mediated immunity • B cells – humoral immunity • Killer cells – immune system surveillance

  11. 19.6 Platelets • Cell fragments • Used to help form clots • Chemical reaction • Physical patch • Shrink clot

  12. 19.7 Clotting vs. Shock • Clotting • Vessel contracts • Platelets aggregate and form plug • Need vitamin K and Ca +2 to form clots • Prostaglandins – regulate clotting • Heparin – impedes clotting • Aspirin (NSAIDS) – decrease prostaglandins, increase bleeding time • Shock • Loss of blood so that pressure can not be maintained