slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Perception PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Perception

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 15

Perception - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 252 Views
  • Uploaded on

Perception. Perception is an active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities. Selection Qualities in the phenomena Self-indication Culture . Organization Cognitive schemata.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Perception' - dobry


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
perception
Perception

Perception is an active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities.

slide3

Selection

Qualities in the phenomena

Self-indication

Culture

Organization

Cognitive schemata

Interpretation

Attributions

selection
Selection
  • Some qualities of external phenomena draw attention.
    • They are larger, more intense, or more unusual.
    • Change compels attention.
    • Our motives and needs affect what we see and don’t see.
    • Cultures also influence what we selectively perceive.
organization
Organization
  • Constructivism
    • We organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata.
      • Prototypes
      • Personal constructs
      • Stereotypes
      • Scripts
cognitive schemata
Cognitive Schemata

Prototype

The most

representative

example of a

category

Personal

Construct

Bipolar, mental

yardstick we use

to measure people

and situations

Stereotype

Predictive generalization

about individuals and

situations based on

the category into which

we place them

Script

Guide to action in

particular situations

interpretation
Interpretation
  • The subjective process of explaining perceptions in ways that let us make sense of them.
    • Attributions are explanations of why things happen and why people act as they do.
dimensions of attributions
Dimensions of Attributions

1. Locus

Internal

External

2. Stability

Stable

Unstable

3. Responsibility

Within personal

control

Beyond personal

control

interpretation9
Interpretation
  • Attributional Errors
    • A self-serving bias
      • Is a bias to favor ourselves and our interests.
      • Allows us to avoid taking responsibility for negative actions and failures by attributing them to external, unstable, and specific factors that are beyond personal control.
    • The fundamental attribution error
      • Involves overestimating the internal causes of others undesirable behaviors and underestimating the external causes.
influences on perception
Influences on Perception
  • Physiology—differences in sensory abilities affect our perceptions. (We do not all hear, see, taste the same.)
  • Age—
    • The older we get the more complex set of experiences we have.
    • Time is different for different ages.
    • Age influences our perception of social life and its problems.
influences on perception11
Influences on Perception
  • Culture consists of beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a number of people.
    • Standpoint theory claims that we are affected not only by the culture as a whole, but by our particular location within the culture.
    • Standpoints reflect power positions in social hierarchies.
influences on perception12
Influences on Perception
  • Cognitive Abilities—How we think about situations and people, and our personal knowledge of others.
    • Cognitive complexity is the number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact.
    • Person-centeredness is the ability to perceive another as a unique individual apart from social roles and generalizations based membership in groups.
      • Person-centeredness in not empathy which is the ability to feel with another.
influences on perception13
Influences on Perception
  • Self—What we selectively perceive and how we organize and interpret phenomena are shaped by many aspects of our selves.
    • Attachment style
    • Implicit personality theory is unspoken and sometimes unconscious assumptions about how various qualities fit together in human personality.
guidelines for improving perception and communication
Guidelines for Improving Perception and Communication
  • Recognize that all perceptions are partial and subjective.
  • Avoid mindreading which is assuming we understand what another person thinks or perceives.
  • Check perceptions with others.
  • Distinguish between facts and inferences.
  • Guard against the self-serving bias.
  • Guard against the fundamental attribution error.
  • Monitor labels.