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Transportation Engineering Introduction and Administration

Transportation Engineering Introduction and Administration

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Transportation Engineering Introduction and Administration

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  1. Transportation Engineering Introduction and Administration Dr. Wen Cheng, P.E., T.E., PTOE June 22nd, 2010 Cal Poly Pomona

  2. Learning Objectives • Background information of various transportation modes • Transportation demand by mode • Administrative structure of transportation system • Transportation finance

  3. Q1: The two main purposes of transportation system are to provide:_____________movement?_____________movement?

  4. Q2: In addition to highway, what are the other 4 modes or components of transportation system?

  5. 5 Transportation Modes

  6. Users select various modes based on… • Varying levels of price • Various levels of service • Convenience • Speed • Safety • Availability

  7. Q3: Why are transportation systems so important?

  8. The importance of transportation systems • provide mobility services for both people and goods, which is important for economic development and human needs. • 16% of the Gross National Products (GNP) • 11% of the labor force • 13% of all federal taxes

  9. Chapter 1: Introduction of Transportation system of the united states

  10. Highway system background information

  11. U.S. Highway Classification #1 • 2 Major functions • Travel mobility • Access to property • Functional classifications • Principle arterial (e.g. Freeway and Expressway) • Minor arterial (e.g. intercity road) • Collector (e.g. some major roads within a city) • Local highway

  12. Major Arterial Minor Arterial Collector Collector Local Street Driveway Properties Interstate Highway Schematic Illustration of Highway Functional Classification

  13. U.S. Numbered Freeways

  14. Q: What are your findings of the following highway numbers?

  15. Highway Classification #2 • Administrative Classification • Federal-aid system (160,000 miles) • State system (775,000 miles) • Local and county roads • Question: • The local road represents the largest or smallest percentage of U.S. highway mileage? • The highway system is almost entirely privately or publicly owned?

  16. Railroad system background information

  17. Railroad System Characteristics • Freight transport • infrastructure and rolling stock owned by private railroad corporations • Passenger transport • infrastructure and rolling stock owned by public railroad corporations • Long-distance inter-city rail travel: AMTRAK • Short-distance travel: commuter rail authorities.

  18. Railroad Classification #1 • Purposes • Line-haul (convey shipment between urban regions or from agricultural or mineral resource sites to urban sites) • Within urban areas • Switching • Belt-line • Terminal

  19. Railroad Classification #2 • Level of operating revenue • Class I railroads ($255.9 m or more) • Class II railroads ($20.5 – $255.8 m) • Class III railroads (less than $20.5 m) • The Surface Transportation Board (STB) manages Class I railroads, the Association of American Railroads (AAR) manages Class II and III railroads.

  20. Railroad routes b/w principal cities

  21. Question: For the three types of railroad, which one has the largest percentage in terms of the following criteria: • Number of railroads • Mileage operated • Railroad employees

  22. Air mode background information

  23. 2 parts of air transportation • Airway system: provides “space channels” or routes for various airplanes travelling from one place to another. • Airport system: functions as the interface between air mode and other transportation mode (highway or railroad mode).

  24. Airway System • In 1994, total mileage of the airways: 394,000 miles (634,081 km) • 2 separate route systems • The low-altitude system (700’~18,000’) • The high-altitude system (18,000’~60,000’) • Guidance of aircraft movements is provided by air traffic controllers with the aid of: • Radio-based instrument landing system (ILS) • Radar • Other navigational aids

  25. Airport Classification #1 • NPIAS (: National Plan of Integrated Airport System) • NPIAS airports • Included in the national plan • Eligible to receive grants under the federal airport improvement program • Non-NPIAS airports • Do not meet the minimum entry criteria of the NPIAS. • >30 min ground travel to the nearest NPIAS airports • > 10 based aircraft

  26. Airport Classification #2:Functional

  27. Water transportation system background information

  28. Water transport components Water: provide water routes for vessels going from one place to another place. Harbors and ports: provide a transition place between water transportation mode and other modes.

  29. Inland transportation system • The navigable depth is: > 9ft (2.7 m); total mileage: 25,543 miles • Two agencies: • The Corps of Engineers: construction and maintenance of the inland waterway system. • The US Coast Guard: the supply and operation of the navigation aids along the waterways. • Three major divisions: • inland rivers and canals • Coastal waterways • Great Lakes system (Michigan, Ontario, etc.)

  30. Pipeline system background information

  31. Pipeline system • Oil pipeline operations that engage in interstate commerce carriage are controlled by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). • Private companies own pipeline systems. • No government aids.

  32. Transportation Demand by Mode

  33. Overall transportation demand What is the indication of this figure?

  34. Shares of domestic ton mileage of freight

  35. Conclusion of share of freight transport • Rail transport, the dominant mode. Market is long-distance shipments • Truck, a rapidly growing mode. Market is short-distance shipments • Inland waterway, a stable mode. Market is bulky and low cost goods • Oil pipeline, oil and oil products • A neglect share for air transportation

  36. Shares of domestic passenger-miles

  37. Conclusion of share of passenger transport • Auto, the dominant mode. • Air, a rapidly growing mode. • Rail, bus, and inland passenger transportation accounts for small share.

  38. Administrative Structure

  39. Divisions of government

  40. Federal legislative committees • Senate Committees: • Committee on Environment and Public Works (water navigation and highway construction and maintenance) • Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (other modes)  • House Committee: • Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure (all elements of transportation)

  41. Federal regulatory agencies • The Surface Transportation Board (STB) • charges on regulations of rail, motor carriers, rail-water connections, and pipeline • The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) • responsible for setting up rates and practices of oil pipeline companies

  42. Executive branch: DOT • Federal level: USDOT • State level: State DOT • Local level: a wide variety of agencies • Note: Ports, airports, and public transit agencies generally exist as an arm of local rather than state government

  43. Transportation associations • AASHTO • TRB • ASCE • ITE • AAR • AAPA • etc.

  44. Transportation Finance

  45. Federal financial aid (1995 example) • Highway $19.1 billions (56.3%) • Airport and airways $9.2 billions (27%) • Transit $2.8 billions (8.3%) • Railroad $1.4 billions (4.2%) • Rivers/Harbors $1.4 billions (4.2%) • Overall: near $34 billions Q: what are the sources of the aid?

  46. Highway Finance • Highway user taxes • Fuel tax • Registration taxes • Special tax on commercial vehicles • Property tax • Tolls • Miscellaneous (parking fees, etc.)