Transportation Engineering Introduction and Administration Dr. Wen Cheng, P.E., T.E., PTOE June 22nd, 2010 Cal Poly Pomona
Learning Objectives • Background information of various transportation modes • Transportation demand by mode • Administrative structure of transportation system • Transportation finance
Q1: The two main purposes of transportation system are to provide:_____________movement?_____________movement?
Q2: In addition to highway, what are the other 4 modes or components of transportation system?
Users select various modes based on… • Varying levels of price • Various levels of service • Convenience • Speed • Safety • Availability
The importance of transportation systems • provide mobility services for both people and goods, which is important for economic development and human needs. • 16% of the Gross National Products (GNP) • 11% of the labor force • 13% of all federal taxes
Chapter 1: Introduction of Transportation system of the united states
U.S. Highway Classification #1 • 2 Major functions • Travel mobility • Access to property • Functional classifications • Principle arterial (e.g. Freeway and Expressway) • Minor arterial (e.g. intercity road) • Collector (e.g. some major roads within a city) • Local highway
Major Arterial Minor Arterial Collector Collector Local Street Driveway Properties Interstate Highway Schematic Illustration of Highway Functional Classification
Highway Classification #2 • Administrative Classification • Federal-aid system (160,000 miles) • State system (775,000 miles) • Local and county roads • Question: • The local road represents the largest or smallest percentage of U.S. highway mileage? • The highway system is almost entirely privately or publicly owned?
Railroad System Characteristics • Freight transport • infrastructure and rolling stock owned by private railroad corporations • Passenger transport • infrastructure and rolling stock owned by public railroad corporations • Long-distance inter-city rail travel: AMTRAK • Short-distance travel: commuter rail authorities.
Railroad Classification #1 • Purposes • Line-haul (convey shipment between urban regions or from agricultural or mineral resource sites to urban sites) • Within urban areas • Switching • Belt-line • Terminal
Railroad Classification #2 • Level of operating revenue • Class I railroads ($255.9 m or more) • Class II railroads ($20.5 – $255.8 m) • Class III railroads (less than $20.5 m) • The Surface Transportation Board (STB) manages Class I railroads, the Association of American Railroads (AAR) manages Class II and III railroads.
Question: For the three types of railroad, which one has the largest percentage in terms of the following criteria: • Number of railroads • Mileage operated • Railroad employees
2 parts of air transportation • Airway system: provides “space channels” or routes for various airplanes travelling from one place to another. • Airport system: functions as the interface between air mode and other transportation mode (highway or railroad mode).
Airway System • In 1994, total mileage of the airways: 394,000 miles (634,081 km) • 2 separate route systems • The low-altitude system (700’~18,000’) • The high-altitude system (18,000’~60,000’) • Guidance of aircraft movements is provided by air traffic controllers with the aid of: • Radio-based instrument landing system (ILS) • Radar • Other navigational aids
Airport Classification #1 • NPIAS (: National Plan of Integrated Airport System) • NPIAS airports • Included in the national plan • Eligible to receive grants under the federal airport improvement program • Non-NPIAS airports • Do not meet the minimum entry criteria of the NPIAS. • >30 min ground travel to the nearest NPIAS airports • > 10 based aircraft
Water transport components Water: provide water routes for vessels going from one place to another place. Harbors and ports: provide a transition place between water transportation mode and other modes.
Inland transportation system • The navigable depth is: > 9ft (2.7 m); total mileage: 25,543 miles • Two agencies: • The Corps of Engineers: construction and maintenance of the inland waterway system. • The US Coast Guard: the supply and operation of the navigation aids along the waterways. • Three major divisions: • inland rivers and canals • Coastal waterways • Great Lakes system (Michigan, Ontario, etc.)
Pipeline system • Oil pipeline operations that engage in interstate commerce carriage are controlled by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). • Private companies own pipeline systems. • No government aids.
Overall transportation demand What is the indication of this figure?
Conclusion of share of freight transport • Rail transport, the dominant mode. Market is long-distance shipments • Truck, a rapidly growing mode. Market is short-distance shipments • Inland waterway, a stable mode. Market is bulky and low cost goods • Oil pipeline, oil and oil products • A neglect share for air transportation
Conclusion of share of passenger transport • Auto, the dominant mode. • Air, a rapidly growing mode. • Rail, bus, and inland passenger transportation accounts for small share.
Federal legislative committees • Senate Committees: • Committee on Environment and Public Works (water navigation and highway construction and maintenance) • Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (other modes) • House Committee: • Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure (all elements of transportation)
Federal regulatory agencies • The Surface Transportation Board (STB) • charges on regulations of rail, motor carriers, rail-water connections, and pipeline • The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) • responsible for setting up rates and practices of oil pipeline companies
Executive branch: DOT • Federal level: USDOT • State level: State DOT • Local level: a wide variety of agencies • Note: Ports, airports, and public transit agencies generally exist as an arm of local rather than state government
Transportation associations • AASHTO • TRB • ASCE • ITE • AAR • AAPA • etc.
Federal financial aid (1995 example) • Highway $19.1 billions (56.3%) • Airport and airways $9.2 billions (27%) • Transit $2.8 billions (8.3%) • Railroad $1.4 billions (4.2%) • Rivers/Harbors $1.4 billions (4.2%) • Overall: near $34 billions Q: what are the sources of the aid?
Highway Finance • Highway user taxes • Fuel tax • Registration taxes • Special tax on commercial vehicles • Property tax • Tolls • Miscellaneous (parking fees, etc.)