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Study of Waterflooding Process in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs from Static and Dynamic Imbibition Experiments PowerPoint Presentation
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SCA9910. Study of Waterflooding Process in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs from Static and Dynamic Imbibition Experiments. E. Putra, Y. Fidra and D.S. Schechter . Outline. Introduction. Objectives. Static Imbibition. Dynamic Imbibition. Conclusions. Dynamic. Static . imbibition.

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slide1

SCA9910

Study of Waterflooding Process in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs from Static and Dynamic Imbibition Experiments

E. Putra, Y. Fidra and D.S. Schechter

slide2

Outline

Introduction

Objectives

Static Imbibition

Dynamic Imbibition

Conclusions

slide3

Dynamic

Static

imbibition

imbibition

Determine laboratory

critical injection rate

Introduction

Determine rock

wettability

Capillary

Capillary pressure curve

pressure curve

Fracture

Scaling

Capillary

equations

Number

Upscaling

Upscaling

Field dimension

slide4

Objectives

  • To investigate wettability of Spraberry Trend Area at reservoir conditions.
  • To investigate the contribution of the capillary imbibition mechanism to waterflood recovery.
  • To determine the critical water injection rate during dynamic imbibition.
slide7

Side View

Air Bath

NV

BV

BV

Brine Tank

PR

High

Pressure

core

Imbibition

Cell

Graduate

Cylinder

BV

N2 Bottle

(2000 psi)

Top View

BV = Ball Valve

NV = Needle Valve

PR = Pressure Regulator

Inlet for creating

tangential flow

Experimental Set-up for Static Imbibition Tests at Reservoir Conditions

slide10

Effect of Temperature on Static Imbibition

with Spraberry Reservoir Rock

slide11

Wettability index vs aging time

for different experimental temperatures

Static imbibition

A

Displacement

B

Spraberry cores

slide12

Composite Imbibition Curves

1.00

Aranofsky Eq. :

0.90

l

R

= 1 - exp (-

t

)

n

D

0.80

0.70

SWW Berea Core

(reference curve)

0.60

Normalized Recovery

Spraberry Cores

0.50

at Reservoir Condition

l

= 0.0053

0.40

0.30

0.20

Spraberry Cores

at Ambient Condition

l

= 0.0015

0.10

0.00

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

10000

100000

Dimensionless Time, tD

slide14

Up-scaled Recovery Profile

1U

h = 10 ft

Ls = 3.79 ft

Upper Spraberry

1U Formation

(Shackelford-1-38A)

slide16

Static Imbibition Modeling

Oil recovered

Oil bubble

Glass funnel

Core plug

Brine

Governing Equation

Assumptions

No gravity effect

Only Pc as driving force

Fluid and rock are incompressible

slide17

Static Imbibition Modeling

Match between Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Solution for Sor = 0.2

Capillary Pressure Curves Obtained as a Result of Matching Experimental Data

slide18

Counter-current Exchange Mechanism

Matrix

Fracture

Invaded Zone

Matrix

Water

Oil

Fracture

Concept of Dynamic Imbibition Process

slide19

Experimental Set-up for Dynamic Imbibition Tests at Reservoir Temperature

Air Bath

Confining pressure gauge

Brine tank

Core holder

Graduated cylinder

Artificially fractured core

N2 Tank

(2000 psi)

Ruska

Pump

Fracture

Matrix

slide20

Oil Recovery from Fractured Berea and Spraberry Cores during Water Injection using Different Injection Rates

slide22

Dynamic Imbibition Modeling

Single porosity, 2 phase and 3-D

Rectangular grid block with grid size : 10 x 10 x 3 (Berea) ; z = 9 layers for Spraberry

Fracture layer between the matrix layers

Inject into the fracture layer

Alter matrix capillary pressure only to match the experimental data

zero Pc for fracture

straight line for krw and kro fracture

use krw and kro matrix from the following equations (Berea core):

slide23

Berea Core

Match Between Experimental Data and Numerical Solution

Cumulative oil production vs. time

Cumulative water production vs. time

Spraberry Core

Cumulative water production vs. time

Cumulative oil production vs. time

slide25

Viscous force

(v w Af )

Capillary force

( cos  Am)

w

h

dz

Am

Af

Dimensionless Fracture Capillary Number

Lab Units:

Field Units:

slide28

Conclusions

The capillary pressure curve and wettability index obtained from spontaneous imbibition experiments indicate the Spraberry cores are weakly water-wet.

  • Effect of pressure is much less important than the effect of temperature on imbibition rate and recovery.

Performing the imbibition tests at higher temperature results in faster imbibition rate and higher recovery due to change in mobility of fluids.

slide29

Conclusions (Cont’ed)

The capillary pressure curve obtained from dynamic imbibition experiments is higher that of the static imbibition experiments due to viscous forces during the dynamic process.

An effective capillary pressure curve can be derived from dynamic imbibition experiments as a result of matching between experimental data and numerical solution.

Imbibition transfer is more effective for low injection rates due to lower viscous forces and longer time to contact the matrix.