Lecture 13: Earnest Hemingway (1899—1961)
Hemingway’s works: The Sun Also Rises For Whom the Bell Tolls The Old Man and the Sea A Farewell to Arms “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” “The Short, Happy Life of Francis Macomber”
Features in Hemingway’s works: • Hemingway situation: characterized by chaos and brutality and violence, by crime and death, by sports and sex • Hemingway theme: “grace under pressure”
Features in Hemingway’s works: • Hemingway hero: a person with “despairing courage”; “Man is not born to be defeated.” • Hemingway style: simplicity and economy of expression; short, uncomplicated sentences; colloquial style
“A Clean, Well-lighted Place”: a. In what ways do the two waiters differ? b. What does the title of the story mean? c. What is the significance of the garbled Lord’s prayer?
“A Clean, Well-lighted Place”: • What is the meaning of “nada”? What is the writer’s intention of replacing many words in the prayers with “nada”? • Why does the writer not give the names of the characters? • How can you distinguish the two waiters? • Why does this place have to be clean and well-lighted? What do cleanliness and brightness represent? • What is the historical background of the story?
The Lord’s Prayer: OurFatherwho art inheaven, hallowedbe thy name. Thy kingdomcome, thy will bedoneon earthas it is inheaven. Give us thisdayour dailybreadandforgiveus ourdebtsas weforgiveourdebtors. Andleadus not intotemptationbut deliver us fromevil;amen.
A Prayer to Virgin Mary: Hail Mary, full ofgrace,the Lordis with thee.
For Week 14: 1. Reading Assignments: William Faulkner, “A Rose for Emily”
For Week 14: 2. Presentation topics: a. Why is Emily’s House the most appropriate setting for the story? b. Does the sex of the narrator affect the telling of the story? c. What is the disadvantage of taking Emily as a symbol of the post-Civil-War South?
For Week 15: 1. Reading Assignments: Eugene O’Neill, Desire Under the Elms
For Week 15: 2. Presentation topics: a. What is the central conflict in the play? b. What do the big elm trees symbolize? c. How is the subject of “desire” represented in the play? “Desire” over what?