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MODAL VERBS. BY FERNANDO SANTIAGO and JOSE LUIS LÓPEZ. WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS?. Modal verbs are unusual verbs that express modality . . DIFFERENCES WITH OTHER VERBS. They have some differences from normal verbs, the most important one is :

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modal verbs

MODAL VERBS

BY FERNANDO SANTIAGO and JOSE LUIS LÓPEZ

what are modal verbs
WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS?
  • Modal verbs are unusual verbs that express modality.
differences with other verbs
DIFFERENCES WITH OTHER VERBS
  • They have some differences from normal verbs, the most important oneis:
    • Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person in singular.
      • Examples:
        • He can  speak Chinese.
        • She should  be here by 9:00.
modal verbs in past
MODAL VERBS IN PAST

Hadto:

  • SorryI’m late, I hadto post some letters..
slide5

Should have and oughtto have:

  • The parcel I sentyoushould have arrivedbynow.
  • Youshouldn’t have eaten so muchlastnight.
  • I should have thoughtyouknew.
  • Itwasstrange that youshould have beenstaying in the same hotel lastyear.
  • I’ve done the washing up foryou. –Oh, youreallyshouldn’t have!
slide6

Could have and couldn’t have:

  • David could have won the raceif he hadtried. (possibility/ability)Itcould have beenSue, I suppose. (uncertainty)
  • Wecouldn’t have beenhappier in thosedays.
  • Shecould have goneto the party with herfriends. (bus shedidn’t)
slide7

Could:

  • When I was sixteen I couldstayouttill 11.00. (I wasallowedto)Mary couldswimwhenshewasthree. (sheactuallydid)Compare: Mary could have swumwhen se wasthree. (butshedidn’t)

May have and might have:

  • Youmight havedrowned!
  • I suppose I may have beenrathercritical.
  • They mightnot have receivedourletteryet.
slide8

Youmight have toldme my trousersweresplit!

  • I might have known that he wouldbe late.

Must have and can’t have

  • Someonemust have takenit. (I am suretheydid)Youcan’t have lostit. (I am sureyoudidn’t)
  • Surelyyoucan’t haveeatenall of it!Surelyyoumust havenoticedit!
slide9

Wouldnot:

  • Everyonewasangrybecause Sam wouldn’tturn off the television.

Would have:

  • I would have acceptedthisjob, but I didn’twanttomovehouse.
  • A: Someonecalledafteryouleftbutdidn’tleave a message.B: That would have beenCathy, probably.
slide10

Needn’t have and didn’tneedto:

  • Youneedn’t have paidall at once. (youdidpay)
  • I didn’tneedtogoto the dentistagain, luckily.

Adverbs and modals:

  • Youcouleasily have beenkilled. I mightjusttake up on that.Youcouldn’treally have managedwithout me. I mightwell decide to come.
modal verbs in the present
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT

Don’thaveto and Mustnot

  • Don’thaveto and mustnot:
    • Don’thaveto:
      • Youdon’thavetoworktomorrow
don t have to and must not
Don’thaveto and Mustnot
  • Mustnot
    • Youmustnotleavetheroomuntilwefinishourpresentation
modal verbs in present and future
MODAL VERBS IN PRESENT AND FUTURE

Should

  • Expectation:
    • This film *shouldbeverygood
  • Recommendation
    • I thinkyou*shouldtalkitover with yourparents
  • Criticism of anaction
    • You *shouldn’teat so much late at night
modal verbs in the present and future
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Should

  • Uncertainty
    • Should I leavethispapersonthedesk?
  • Should and verbs of thinking
    • I shouldthinkthatmodelwouldsell quite well
  • Conditionalsentences
slide15

MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Could

  • Isusedtoexpresspossibilityoruncertainty
    • Thiscouldbethehouse
  • Toexpresspossibilityorimpossibility
    • Thesituationcouldn’tbeworse
modal verbs in the present and future1
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Could

  • Tomakesuggestions
    • Wecouldgotoseethat film
  • Toexpressunwillingness
    • I couldn’tpossiblyleave Tim hereonhisown
modal verbs in the present and future2
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Can

  • Tomakecriticism
    • You can beveryannoying, youknow!
  • Torefertocapability
    • Winter here can bereallycold
modal verbs in the present and future3
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Must and can’t

  • Theyonlyrefertopresent time. Ifthey are expressingcertainty, they are opposites:
    • Thismustbeour stop
    • Thiscan’tbeour stop
modal verbs in the present and future4
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

May and might

  • Toexpressalthoughclauses
    • Shemaybetheboss, butthatis no excuse forshoutinglikethat
  • May/might as well
    • Nobodyelseisgoingtoturn up nowforthelesson, so youmay as wellgo home
modal verbs in the present and future5
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

May and might

  • Bothexpressuncertainty. Mayisoftenused in formal language
    • Thepeaceconferencemayfind a solutiontotheproblem
  • Special use:
    • Try as I might, I couldnotpass my driving test
modal verbs in the present and future6
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Shall

  • Toemphasizesomethingthatthe speaker wantstohappen
    • I shallgive up smoking thisyear
  • Formal rules and regulations
    • No playershall pick up ormovetheball of anotherplayer
modal verbs in the present and future7
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Will

  • Toexpressanassumption
    • Subject A: Thephone’sringing
    • Subejct B: that’llbefor me
  • Will/won`t can beusedtoemphasizeanaction, forbidit in response to a willaction
    • I’lltakethemoneyanyway!
    • Youwon’t
    • I will
modal verbs in the present and future8
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Would

  • Oftenusedwhere a conditionalsenseisunderstoodbutnotstated
    • Nobodywouldagreethat idea
modal verbs in the present and future9
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Need and needto

  • Needtois a modal auxilary and behaveslikea normal verb
    • Do youneedto use thephotocopier?
  • Needis a modal auxiliary, butmainly in question and negativeforms
    • Needyoumake so muchnoise?
modal verbs in the present and future10
MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Dare

  • Can beanintransitiveverbfollowedbyinfinitivewith “to”
    • I didn’tdaretosayanything
  • It can alsobe a modal auxiliary, mainly in questions and negatives
    • Shedarenotrefuse
slide26

MODAL VERBS IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE

Non-modal expressions

  • Hadbetter: recommendation
    • You’dbetternotphoneheragain
  • Be boundto: makes a futureprediction of certainty
    • It’sboundto rain tomorrow
exercises
Exercises
  • http://www.englishpage.com/modals/interactivemodal1.htm
  • http://www.mansioningles.com/gram62.htm