Structure and function in living things
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Structure and Function in Living Things. Chapter Fifteen: The Diversity of Life. 15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics 15.2 Algae and Fungi. Investigation 15A. Creature Cladogram. What type of information can be used to create a cladogram?. 15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics.

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Chapter Fifteen: The Diversity of Life

  • 15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics

  • 15.2 Algae and Fungi

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Investigation 15A

Creature Cladogram

  • What type of information can be used to create a cladogram?

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15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics

  • Scientists classify organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary relationships.

  • This process is called systematics.

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15.1 Taxonomy and Systematics

  • A Swedish scientist and explorer named Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) developed a system of classification called taxonomyin the 1700s.

  • Linnaeus classified living things according to their shared characteristics.

  • There are currently seven levels of classification.

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15.1 Scientific Names

  • A scientific nameis the two-part, scientifically recognized name given to an organism, consisting of its genus and species.

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15.1 Scientific Names

  • You may have a difficult time understanding scientific names because they are usually in Latin or Greek.

  • Felisis Latin for “cat” and domesticusis Latin for “domesticated.”

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15.1 What is systematics?

  • Darwin’s theory of evolution led to the development of systematics.

  • Systematicsis the process of classifying living things according to evolutionary relationships.

  • Today, scientists may use DNA analysis to classify living species.

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15.1 What is systematics?

  • The evolutionary development of primates can be shown on a simple cladogram.

  • The characteristics listed along the right distinguish the levels above each node (the point where two branches meet).

  • The nodes indicate a common ancestor between two groups.

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15.1 Evolution and the six kingdoms

  • An evolutionary treeis a diagram with many branches that shows evolutionary relationships among organisms, both living and extinct.

  • In a complete evolutionary tree, the levels of classification (phylum, class, order, etc.) would branch off from each kingdom all the way down to the species level.