Converts to Islam in South Asia. In India, the authority and prestige of the upper castes was entirely dependent upon Hinduism. The lower castes were more inclined to convert because Islam’s stress on equality was more attractive to them.
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Believed to be the site Abraham’s sacrifice, this shrine in Mecca became the “neutral” pilgrimage site for all the pre-Islamic gods. Muhammad smashed the idols to these gods and today this shrine is the destination of the hajj – the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Technological Innovations during the Abbasid Caliphate reflected new thinking as well as their “additions” to the ideas of other civilizations.
The Abbasid caliphs used an extensive bureaucracy to keep the taxes rolling into the treasury. Their lifestyle reflected how the money was spent.
Seljuks Dynasty of Rum (Byzantium) 11th –14th c.
During the 12th c. the Seljuks empire was divided into three main groups: a western group comprising Anatolia, a central group covering Syria and Iraq, and an eastern group including Iran and Central Asia.
Seljuk architecture is characterized by the rapid transmission of ideas and forms.
Reports of Seljuk interference with Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem led Pope Urban II, in 1095, to call for the First Crusade.
Expanding the Ottoman Empire – The Ottomans were a Turkish-speaking nomadic people who had migrated from Central Asia into northwestern Asia Minor. In the 1300s, they expanded across Asia Minor into southeastern Europe. They established a capital in the Balkan Peninsula.