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World War 1. Peterson – US 2 Chapter 11. MAIN - Causes of World War I. M ilitarism An aggressive attitude led to an arms race, producing  strong navies and armored vehicles. 

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world war 1

World War 1

Peterson – US 2

Chapter 11

main causes of world war i
MAIN - Causes of World War I

Militarism An aggressive attitude led to an arms race, producing  strong navies and armored vehicles. 

Alliances The alliances of Europe were formed for protection against each other.  However, they  very quickly became aggressive towards one another. 

  • Triple Entente - Great Britain , France, Russia
  • Triple Alliance - Germany ,Austria-Hungary ,Italy

Imperialism European countries divided up Africa and Asia to strengthen the political and economic power of the mother country, which caused competition.

Nationalism was both a uniting force and a divisive one.  It resulted in Germany and Italy uniting into strong nations, and also caused the eventual disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. 

  • Competition for growing empires/ Economies
  • Large militaries/navies needed
  • Germany begins to expand Navy
  • Tanks, Airplanes, subs
  • Other countries build their militaries to match, protect empires
  • Britain is THE world power, but German industry is out producing them
  • Germany feels slighted because they get no respect
  • France is embarrassed since they lost the Franco-Prussian war and lost the Alsace and Lorraine area
  • Pan-Slavism – desire for all Slavic people to be under one empire (Russia is Slavic, Slavs spread all through the Balkan Peninsula)
powder keg
  • These 4 factors combine to create what is referred to as a powder keg…ready to explode into war
the spark
The Spark
  • Heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, is to visit Sarajevo, Bosnia.
    • Bosnia was ruled by Austria-Hungry, Slavic nationalist movement in Bosnia wanted to separate
  • A terrorist/Freedom fighter group known as the “Black Hand” hatches a plan to assassinate FF
  • A-H (along with Germany) blame Serbia
    • Excuse to punish Serbia and expand territory
    • Serbia agrees to most demands of A-H
  • However – Russia is the historic protector of Serbia
  • Chain of events
    • June 1914 – Assassinated
    • July 28 – A-H declares war on Serbia
    • Russia mobilizes towards Germany and AH boarders

Germany knows they can not win a two front war, and Russia and France are allies

    • Schlieffen Plan- GER. knew that it had little time to defeat France before turning to Russia
    • August 1st Germany declares war on Russia
    • August 3rd Germany declares war on France
    • Germany marches through neutral Belgium drawling GB into the war
    • Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers
    • By September Europe is in all out war
  • Central Powers – Germany, A-H, Ottoman
  • “Allies” – Great Britain, France, Russia, US (later)

WW1 is the first modern war

  • The Germans expected quick victory in France, they stall and violate the Schlieffen Plan
    • Russia moved quicker than expected
  • On the “Western Front” (France/German border) both sides dig in
    • Trench warfare develops

Somme -60K British die in one day

Verdun- 500K dead on each side

new technology
New Technology
  • Machine Guns – allowed a few gunners to fight off “charges”…leads to stalemates
  • Artillery – reaching up to 10 miles
  • Poison Gas/Masks – 80,000 die…many other left with lasting effects of poison gas
us neutrality
US Neutrality
  • Most feel that war was too distant to get involved
  • Public Divided
    • Cultural/ Ancestral ties
  • British propaganda – Germany is the Bully
  • Economic ties
    • Stronger with Allies than Central
war comes home
War comes home
  • British blockade North Sea (even food)
    • Angers Americans
  • Germany responds with Unrestricted Submarine Warfare(USW)
    • German U-Boats ANY British or Allied ship would be sunk
    • Lusitania June 1915 – 128 Americans

After Lusitania public is outraged

  • Wilson rules out war
  • Germany again attacks Arabic (August 1915 – 2 Americans)
    • Germany agrees to avoid civilians or neutral nations
  • March 1916 – Sussex
    • Germany asks US to get Britain to allow food
  • Election of 1916
    • “He kept us out of the war”
america enters the war
America Enters the War
  • Wilson works for peace…fails
  • German USW cranks back up
  • Zimmerman Note – Germany to Mexico
    • Asking Mexico to attack US
  • Czar of Russia overthrown (now all democracies in Allies)
  • Wilson asks Congress to declare war…make world safe for democracy
    • April 2, 1917
building a force
Building a Force
  • Selective Service Act – Draft
    • All men register…random selection
  • 3 million put into service
    • 400K African Americans
  • Stepping up production of ships
american push
American Push
  • John J. Pershing – American Expeditionary Force
  • “Doughboys” fresh to the fight
  • Convoy System
  • “Shell Shock” – battle fatigue
  • Trench foot and Mouth
towards the end
Towards the end
  • Russia pulls out of war
  • Germans focus on western front
    • US troops just in time, help hold off German offence
  • November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrenders to Allies
  • German sailors, soldiers rebel; socialists establish German republic
    • Kaiser gives up throne
  • Germans exhausted; armistice, or truce, signed November 11, 1918
cost of war
Cost of War
  • World War I bloodiest war in history to date
  • more than half of 22 million dead are civilians
    • 48,000 Americans
  • 20 million more are wounded
    • 200,000 Americans
  • 10 million people become refugees
section 3
Section 3



RR administration

  • Fuel Administration

Labor Board

  • Food Administration
section 4
Section 4

Wilson’s Efforts for Peace

wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • Wilson presents his plan for lasting peace with his 14 points
    • Prevent future wars
    • Draw new borders
    • Create a League of Nations (forum to discuss grievances)
  • European powers want to punish Germany
  • Peace conference
    • No central powers or Russia
    • Wilson is forced to concede most of his points
      • Goes for it all with the 14th point – League of Nations
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany shoulders full blame for the war
    • Huge reparations payments to be made
    • Not allowed to have an Army
    • Carved out a new map for Eastern Europe
    • Colonies of Central powers divided among France and UK
opposition to treaty
Opposition to Treaty
  • Many groups upset/oppose
    • Ethnic groups
    • Americans
    • Colonies
  • Domestic opposition
    • Over League of Nations
    • Attack on sovereignty?
    • Henry Cabot Lodge
wilson won t compromise
Wilson won’t Compromise
  • No republicans among those in Paris
  • Goes on 8000 mile tour to sell treaty to the people
    • Poor Health, Suffers Stroke
  • Treaty never ratified
  • US never joins League
  • Leads to
    • WW2
    • American Isolationism