Introduction to Electronics. Electronics Unit, Lecture 3. Prototyping Techniques and Soldering Electronics Unit – Lecture 3. Schematic Diagrams Assembly Methods Soldering Tutorial. Schematic Diagrams. Schematic diagrams represent an electronic circuit in symbolic form.
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Electronics Unit, Lecture 3
Schematic diagrams represent an electronic circuit in symbolic form.
A schematic need not depict the actual physical arrangement of the components
Wires and wire connections
Either A or B is acceptable C is the preferred style
D is seldom used E is interpreted as a non-connection
Power sources (V) and common connections (GND)
Resistors (R) and Capacitors (C)
Inductors (L) and Transformers (T)
The two parallel lines indicate that the inductor is wound on a core of iron, iron powder, or ferrite material.
The arrow points in the allowed direction of
conventional (positive charges) current flow.
The bar represents the cathode, marked with a band on most parts.
Integrated circuits (U)
Most complex integrated circuits are represented on schematic diagrams as a rectangular block symbol, with pin numbers and, usually, pin functions indicated; but many logic integrated circuits have special symbols that identify their function.
double pole single throw
single pole single throw
Switches (S) and Relays (K)
single pole double throw
double pole double throw
single pole double throw
1 pole, 5 position
Miscellaneous Components and Devices
Use one of the many schematic capture programs available on the WWW for free download, for example:
These usually include printed circuit board layout capability as well.
The SkeeterSat schematic shown earlier was prepared with ExpressPCB
Perfboards or Protoboards
Dead Bug Construction
Etched Circuit Boards
The term breadboard originated in the early days of radio, when many experimenters actually built circuits on the wooden boards used in their mother’s kitchen for rolling out bread dough.
modern solderless breadboards
Best thing to come along since sliced bread!
A ham radio transmitter circa 1930
Components are soldered to the board, with connections made using a combination of short pieces of wire and the copper traces already present on some versions of these boards.
Soldering – fastening metal objects using molten metal (solder) as the glue.
Low melting point metal (wire solder) Heat source (soldering iron)
Flux (to prevent surfaces from oxidizing)
60% Tin, 40% Lead - solid at 361° F, liquid at 374° F
63% Tin, 37% Lead - eutectic point is 361° F
no “pasty” range so joint movement less a problem
62% Tin, 36% Lead, 2 % Silver - solid at 354 ° F,
liquid at 372 F
often used for surface mount components whose
contacts contain trace amounts of silver
Iron is continuously “ON” and eventually reaches equilibrium temperature
20 to 25 watt iron sufficient for circuit board assembly
Tip incorporates a thermostatic element to maintain desired tip temperature
650 – 750 ° F appropriate for circuit board assembly
But wait…..even better…
Weller® 30 watt iron
Feedback control maintains tip at desired temperature
Adjustable, often with analog or digital temperature display
Many have grounded tip to help prevent ESD damage
Temperature Controlled Solder Station
Weller® solder station
Type R – ordinary rosin – most common
Type RMA – mildly activated rosin
Type RA – activated rosin – use with care
Acid Flux – NEVER, EVER use this for electronics
Most solder used for electronics assembly is in wire form, with the flux incorporated inside the solder.
Multi-core solder has several (usually five) separate flux channels within the solder.
For circuit board assembly use wire solder with a diameter of about 0.025 inch or less
Use a lead bending jig, if available, to form the component leads to the correct spacing
If a bending jig is not on hand, grasp the leads, not the body, of the component with needle-nosed pliers and bend gently.
Insert the component’s leads through the holes in the circuit board. The body should lie flat against the board without having to force it down.
Turn the board over and gently bend the component leads outward to hold the component in place
Clean the iron tip by wiping on a damp sponge. Tin the tip by applying solder, then wipe again.
QT Movie Clip
Apply the iron in contact with both the circuit board pad and the component lead. Apply solder to the joint, not to the iron, and allow the heated joint to melt the solder
QT Movie Clip
Use a pair of flush-cutting wire cutters to cut off the excess lead length as close to the board as possible. Hold the lead so will not fly away when cut, a possible occasion for eye injury.
!! WEAR SAFETY GLASSES !!
QT Movie Clip
Inspect the soldered and trimmed lead. It should be uniform and shiny, with no cracks, gaps, or graininess.
E3a. Use the supplied assortment of components and practice soldering them to the perfboard.
E3b. Locate each SkeeterSat component on the schematic diagram, and then on the circuit board layout. Be careful to note if the part has to be oriented in a special way. You will actually construct your SkeeterSat in the next session.