ECSTASY. Kacey Carlson Santiago Zarate. Basic Information. Scientific name: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Or MDMA Other names: XTC, X, Adam, Hug Drug, Beans, Love D rug, Molly, etc. Taken by Capsule or Tablet Stimulant
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ECSTASY Kacey Carlson Santiago Zarate
Basic Information • Scientific name: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine • Or MDMA • Other names: XTC, X, Adam, Hug Drug, Beans, Love Drug, Molly, etc. • Taken by Capsule or Tablet • Stimulant • Originally patented as an appetite suppressant in 1912 and could be obtained by prescription • Not widely used until 1980s and then was used for its euphoric feeling • 1985 became illegal, but easily attainable at raves • Effects can occur after right away, days, or weeks after taking • Overdose is deadly
Effects • Neurological: the neurotransmitter of serotonin • Increases production of serotonin and prolongs signal • Similar effects on norepinephrine and dopamine • Leaves larger “holes” in the brain in certain areas • Meaning these areas of the brain are now irreparable and unusable
Short Term Effects • Enhanced sense of self confidence • Increase in energy • Feelings of peacefulness, acceptance, and empathy • Involuntary teeth chattering or clenching • Lose of inhibitions • Transfixion of sight and sound • Nausea • Blurred vision • Chills and/or sweating • Increase blood pressure and heart rate • Possible seizures
Effects • Long Term effects • Muscle breakdown • Kidney and Liver failure • Cardiovascular Problems and Failure • Sleep Problems • Anxiety • Depression • Confusion • Cravings for Drugs • Damage to Cells and Neurons • Serotonin • Interference or Disruption of Memory
Users • In 2001-02, users were mostly young adult Caucasians. • Now it has grown to multiple ethnicities and races • Often used in night club scene, dance parties, raves • Used with other drugs as a part of a “multi-drug experience”. • More young adults use than teens • Effects on Teens vs. Adults: not much of a difference except that teens’ brains are still developing so they tend to have more memory problems later in life than those who use as adults
General Statistics • In 2009, 76,000 people ages 12+ had used this drug • Lifetime use increase from 4.3% (10.2 million) in 2002 to 5.7% (14.2 million) in 2009 • In 2010 number declined • 1.1 million reported first time use in 2009 which is a huge increase from 894,000 first time users in 2008 MDMA Use by Students Monitoring the Future Survey, 2010 8th Grade 10th Grade 12th Grade Lifetime** 3.3% 6.4% 7.3% Past Year 2.4 4.7 4.5 Past Month 1.1 1.9 1.4
Addictive Statistics • Survey of adults and adolescents found that 43% of those who used met the diagnostic criteria for dependence of MDMA • Abstinence-Associated withdrawal symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, depression, and trouble concentrating • Chronic users perform poorly of cognitive and memory tasks • Exposure for 4 days causes damage seen up to 6 to 7 years later.
Consequences • Legally: possession or supply of ecstasy range from a $2000 fine and/or two years in prison up to a $50,000 fine and/or life imprisonment • Socially: rejection from friend group and family, rejection goes like-wise if you quit • Personally: grades suffer do to memory problems created by MDMA, suffer from long term health effects (kidney, liver, and cardiovascular problems and failure) can get depression, anxiety, and sleep problems
Treatment Options • No specific treatment or Pharmacological treatments available • Most effective treatment for drug abuse and addiction in general are cognitive-behavioral intervention that are designed to • Modify thinking • Expectancies • Behavior related to drug use • Drug abuse recovery support groups are highly recommended
Sources • http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/mdma-ecstasy • http://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/ecstasy • http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/poison/ecstasy/ecstasy.htm • Teens Under the Influence by Katherine Ketchem and Nicholas A. Pace, M.D.