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Collaboration. Human Computer Interaction CIS 6930/4930 Section 4188/4186. Intro. Old school: individualism Alienating and antihuman New School: chat rooms, listserves, MMORPGs, IRC socially respectable and occassionally positive Terms: Computer Support Cooperative Work (CSCW)

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Human Computer Interaction

CIS 6930/4930

Section 4188/4186

  • Old school: individualism
    • Alienating and antihuman
  • New School: chat rooms, listserves, MMORPGs, IRC
    • socially respectable and occassionally positive
  • Terms:
    • Computer Support Cooperative Work (CSCW)
      • Does this include cooperative, collaborative, and competitive?
    • Groupware (team orientated collaborative interfaces)
  • Covers many fields including:
    • Psychology
    • Sociology
  • Now a design requirement for most interfaces
  • Everyone must give a presentation on one interface, including
    • Invention date, Pros, Cons, Current Usage, Business possiblities, Research areas, Future
    • Choices: email, IRC, IM, MMORPG, Medical, B2B,
types of collaboration
Types of Collaboration
  • Focused Partnerships – close collaborations between a small group (2 to 3) that require each person
    • Ex. Authors, Medical team, Programmers
    • Needs: Share documents, joint review
    • Apps: IM, Video conference, email, broadband
  • Lecture/demo – one person shares to others
    • Needs: Store, replay, broadband
  • Conferences – distributed communication (synchronous and asynchronous)
    • Needs: many-to-many messaging
    • Apps: Blogs and wikis (group editing spaces)
  • Structured Work – group with distinct roles work on a task
    • Apps: online conference/journal managers
  • Meeting and decision support – Many people with local and global data (psychology impacts)2
    • Apps: program committees
  • Electronic commerce – reviewing data and making decisions as a group (time and space distributed)
    • Apps: b2b negotiations
  • Teledemocracy – groups, organizations, gov’t meetings
    • Apps: online town-hall meetings (impacts constituent power)
  • Online Communities – large widely distributed group
    • Apps: MMORPG, Communities of interest (COIs) and Communities of practice (COPs)
  • Collabortories – groups that work together over time and space, usually to share equipment, expertise, etc.
    • Apps: Time sharing unique equipment
    • Benefits from similar file formats
  • Telepresence – remote participants to have experiences as being present. Notion of co-presence
    • Apps: VR, remote control vehicles
  • Questions about etiquette, subtlety, responsibility, trust
goals of collaboration
Goals of Collaboration
  • Research is harder w/ collaborative systems
  • Controlled experiments are more complicated
    • Multiple users
    • Distributed nature
    • Lots of data to process
  • Researchers can use:
    • Social psych lit
    • Reflective case studies of tools
    • Usage stats
  • What makes some interfaces successful while others not?
    • Accepted: Cell phones, email, IM
    • Research: VE, video conferencing
  • How do you evaluate effectiveness?
    • Acceptance can be misleading (IM, email)
    • Surveys, usage stats, test scores for teaching apps
  • Don’t discount the effect of shared risk in face-to-face meetings that make them compelling
asynchronous distributed interfaces
Asynchronous Distributed Interfaces
  • Different methods to support AD collaboration
  • What are the pros and cons of each?
  • E-Mail
    • Organization is difficult for large volume users
    • Spam
    • Half of US population uses it
    • List control
  • Newsgroups
    • Communications between groups
    • Hiearchical structure
  • Listserve (moderated/unmoderated)
  • Discussion Boards (evolved from BBSs)
    • Stat: Lurkers outnumber posters by 100:1
    • Most unmoderated groups do not survive
    • Support for archiving, sorting, searching
  • Online conferencing benefits from anytime connectivity
  • Online communities
    • Topics focused groups
    • Both: good collaboration and addiction and disturbing cyber-identities
    • Successful: Patient support (rare diseases, immobile patients)
    • Generalized Reciprocity – help others believing you will be eventually helped
    • Requires both good interfaces and understanding of the social community
    • Clearly stated purpose, well-defined membership, explicit policies
    • Data-mining in online forums
    • Subset: Distance education courses
    • Subset: Open source communities
  • Evolution of emoticons (icons [typically text] that represent an emotional state)
synchronous distributed interfaces
Synchronous Distributed Interfaces
  • Different Place, Same Time
  • Initial systems: GRoup Outline Viewing Editor (GROVE)
    • Edit the same document simultaneously w/ voice chat
  • Sharing and affecting information dynamically
  • Example research: Distributed acting rehearsals
  • Expansive 3D environments
    • App: ActiveWorlds
    • Research: Role of avatars in these environments
    • Slater
    • What is important for avatars?
  • Instant Messenging
    • 28% were simple interactions, 31% about scheduling and coordination
    • Short Messaging Systems (SMS) – Texting
  • Enables a more even distribution of technology
    • Short: India fishermen can check dock prices before coming ashore
    • Allows activists and protestors to organize quickly
video and audio conferencing
Video and Audio Conferencing
  • Large industry for video and audio conferencing
    • Companies: Polycom, Sony, VTEL
  • Pros: infrastructure available, cost versus travel, facial expression, some body language
  • Cons: eye contact, intimacy, subtle side meetings, availability, body expression, physical contact
  • Leverage desktop videoconferencing (DTVC) - mid90s
    • CU-SeeME
    • Net Meeting (screenshot)
    • Allows access to files during conversation
  • Considerations:
    • Bandwidth, packet loss, compression quality, latency, action synchronization, FOV
  • Studies on impact on task performance of audio and visual streams
    • Chapanis ’75 – importance of audio for review of shared visuals
    • Audio is important, though users often desire video
    • If review of an object is the task, then using video significantly improves performance
  • What has restricted more wide usage?
    • Is it eye-contact?
    • Lack of 3D? OOTF
    • Would constant-on video conferencing improve the sense of co-presence? or just intrusive? (Jancke ’01)
  • Tasks
    • Helped: Initial meetings
  • For distance learning: Audio > video > text
face to face interfaces
Face to Face Interfaces
  • Teams of people working together and sharing technology
  • Ex. pilot & co-pilot, stock traders, air traffic controllers
  • GroupSystems (Univ. of Arizona – Valalcich ’91)
    • Semicircular classroom w/ 24 personal computers built into desks
    • Anonymous proposals
    • Study: (Nunamaker ’91) discusses benefits
      • Broader input, fewer dominators
      • More candid comments
      • Group history was useful
      • Helped focus the group discussion
      • Improved information analysis
  • Lots of projects on shared spaces
    • Capture Lab at Electronic Data Systems (Mantei ’88)
    • 8 Macs around an oval desk for business meetings with a central display that any user can take control of
    • Display walls (Xerox PARC’s LiveBoard)
      • New tracked pens allow for electronic copies
      • Public display walls is a new interaction paradigm that needs new interaction methodologies
electronic classrooms
Electronic Classrooms
  • Most balance learning with
    • Too much ‘chatting’
    • Cheating
    • Conversations off topic
  • New learning and interaction styles
    • More interactive than traditional lectures
    • More prep time
    • Reports of greater efficiency
    • Anxiety is reduced by showing work more often
    • Can support small group dynamics (pairs learn better than individuals for collaboration tasks)
      • Time variance reduced with fewer stragglers
    • Novel simulations: Hostage negotiation, space camp