Chapter 15 Population and Urbanization
Chapter Outline • The City of God • Population • Theories of Population Growth • Population and Social Inequality • Urbanization
The City of God: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is one of the world’s most beautiful cities. • With a population of more than 12 million in 2002, it is the 18th biggest metropolitan area in the world. • Not all are well off, slums are home to about 20% of the city’s inhabitants.
The City of God: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil • Brazil’s 41 million people in 1940 multiplied to about 180 million in 2004. • The country is now more urbanized than the United States, with more than 3/4 of its population living in urban areas.
The Population “Explosion” • 10,000 years before the birth of Christ there were only about 6 million people in the world. • By the time Christ was born, world population had risen to 250 million, and it increased to some 760 million by 1750. • The number of humans reached 1 billion in 1804 and 5 billion in 1987.
The Population “Explosion” • On July 1, 2005, there will be an estimated 6.4 billion people in the world according to the U.S. Census Bureau. • Where 1 person stood 12,000 years ago, there are now 1067 people. • Statistical projections suggest that by 2100, there will be about 1700 people.
Malthusian Theory of Population Growth • While food supplies increase slowly, populations grow quickly. • Only war, pestilence, and famine can keep human population growth in check.
Polling Question • There should be government intervention in determining the maximum number of children people can have. • Strongly agree • Agree somewhat • Unsure • Disagree somewhat • Strongly disagree
Renewable Resources, World, % Change, 1990–2010 (projected)
Demographic Transition Theory • The main factors underlying population dynamics: • Industrialization • Growth of cultural values
Demographic Transition Theory: 4 Stages • Pre-industrial era - crude birth rates and crude death rates were high and population growth was slow. • Early industrialization - crude death rates fell, population growth was rapid.
Demographic Transition Theory: 4 Stages • Later in industrialization era -values about having children changed, the crude birth rate fell, resulting in slow growth again. • Postindustrial era - crude death rate has risen above the crude birth rate in many societies.
Case Study: Kerala • Kerala is a state in India with more than 30 million people. • Kerala had a total fertility rate of 1.8 in 1991, half of India’s national rate and far less than the replacement level of 2.1.
Case Study: Kerala • The government of Kerala solved overpopulation by increasing gender equality. • Organized programs to educate women and increase participation in the paid labor force. • Made family planning widely available. • Today, Keralan women enjoy the highest literacy rate, the highest labor force participation rate, and the highest rate of political participation in India.
Polling Question • If you could live anywhere in the United States that you wanted to, would you prefer a city, suburban area, small town, or farm? • City • Suburban area • Small town • Farm
Chicago School • Described the arrangement of the industrial city as expanding concentric circles: • The main business, entertainment, and shopping area is in the center. • The class position of residents increases as from inner to outer rings.
After Chicago: A Critique • Social isolation, stress, emotional withdrawal and other problems may be as common in rural as in urban areas. • The patterns discovered are most applicable to American industrial cities in the first quarter of the 20th century. • Presents urban growth as a natural process, slighting historical, political, and economic foundations in capitalist industrialization.
Central city • Suburban residential areas • Circumferential highway • Radial highway • Shopping mall • Industrial district • Office park • Service center • Airport complex • Combined employment and shopping center
New Urban Sociology • Emerged in the 1970s and stressesthat city growth is a process rooted in power relations and the urge to profit.
Corporate City • The growing post-World War II perception and organization of the North American city as a vehicle for capital accumulation.
Suburbanism • A way of life outside city centers that is organized mainly around the needs of children and involves higher levels of conformity and sociability than life in the central city.
Gated Communities, Exurbs, and Edge Cities • Metropolitan areas include: • gated communities - Residents pay high taxes to keep the community patrolled and walled off from the outside world. • exurbs - Rural residential areas within commuting distance of the city. • edge cities - Exurban clusters of malls and offices at the convergence point of major highways.
The Postmodern City:3 Features • Access to formerly public spaces is limited to those who can afford to pay. • A variety of lifestyles and subcultures based on race, ethnicity, immigrant status, class, sexual orientation, etc. • More globalized than the corporate city.
% Change in Population of High-Poverty Neighborhoods, United States, 1990–2000
1. According to Malthus, what forces hold population growth in check? • "preventive" measures such as abortion and infanticide • "positive checks" such as war, pestilence, and famine • "religious checks" such as abstinence and self-denial • "preventive" measures such as abortion and infanticide, and "positive checks" such as war, pestilence, and famine
Answer: d 1. According to Malthus, "preventive" measures such as abortion and infanticide, and "positive checks" such as war, pestilence, and famine hold population growth in check.
2. Helping the poor economically generally results in the poor having more children. • True • False
Answer: b • Helping the poor economically generally does not result in the poor having more children.
3. According to demographic transition theory, in the pre-industrial period: • the crude birth rate was low • the crude birth rate was high • the crude death rate was high • the crude birth rate was low, and the crude death rate was high • the crude birth rate was high, and the crude death rate was high
Answer: e • According to demographic transition theory, in the pre-industrial period the crude birth rate was high, and the crude death rate was high.
4. What policies have been followed in Kerala, a state in India, to reduce the fertility rate to a manageable level? • The government pursued a policy of rapid industrialization. • The government strictly enforced a childbirth policy similar to China's • The government organized programs to educate women and increase their participation in the labor force. • All of these choices
Answer: c • In Kerala, a state in India, the government organized programs to educate women and increase their participation in the labor force.
5. The idea that industrialization is the only factor underlying urbanization is inaccurate because: • cities existed in the ancient era as administrative and religious centers • international trade stimulated urban growth in pre-industrial Europe and the Middle East • urbanization is not occurring at a rapid rate in the world's poor countries • a. and b.
Answer: d • The idea that industrialization is the only factor underlying urbanization is inaccurate because cities existed in the ancient era as administrative and religious centers and international trade stimulated urban growth in pre-industrial Europe and the Middle East.
6. The new urban sociology is a theoretical approach that borrows ideas from biology to identify the dynamics and patterns of urban growth. • True • False
Answer: b • The new urban sociology does not borrow ideas from biology to identify the dynamics and patterns of urban growth.