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Psychological Therapies : PSYCHOANALYSIS. By the end of today’s lesson, you should be able to: . Explain what psychoanalysis is Explain how psychoanalysis aims to treat mental abnormality Define ‘catharsis’ Describe how each of these psychoanalytic techniques is used to treat abnormality:

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Psychological Therapies : PSYCHOANALYSIS

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    1. Psychological Therapies : PSYCHOANALYSIS

    2. By the end of today’s lesson, you should be able to: • Explain what psychoanalysis is • Explain how psychoanalysis aims to treat mental abnormality • Define ‘catharsis’ • Describe how each of these psychoanalytic techniques is used to treat abnormality: • Dream analysis • Free association • Transference

    3. Relevant exam questions: • Outline what is involved in psychoanalysis (6 marks) • Discuss psychoanalysis as a form of treatment ( 12 marks(

    4. What is psychoanalysis? • Analysis of the psyche – the mind • Not just one technique – a body of techniques which may be used separately or together to help the patient • Sometimes called the ‘talking therapy’ • Invented by Sigmund Freud

    5. What is the aim of psychoanalysis? • Freud said that the goal of therapy is simply " to make the unconscious conscious.“ • When the patient is made aware of unconscious thoughts, feelings and conflicts they are able to confront and overcome them. This is a process known as catharsis (but it can take a very long time!) • Mental abnormality should then ‘disappear’

    6. Free association • In a real therapy session, the patient would talk freely about whatever enters their head • The therapist would then analyse what is said in order to detect possible conflicts or traumas which might be buried in the subconscious • We don’t have the time or expertise for this, so…

    7. Dream analysis • Freud said that dreams were full of symbols which represent what is going on in our unconscious mind • Analysing our dreams helps us to understand our unconscious • Other psychologists analyse dreams, but Freud differs because he believed most dreams had a sexual content

    8. TASK You have 30 seconds to write down the first 10 words that come into your mind Don’t think about it… just write • Think about the last dream you can remember having • Try to think of any specific objects, people or activities that occurred in your dream • WARNING: Some people may find the following interpretations embarrassing, so you don’t have to share your dream with anyone if you don’t want to!

    9. Long things that ‘jut out’: Penis • Mountains, sticks, umbrellas, poles, trees, baguettes, snakes • Objects which can be lengthened: Penis • Aerials, extendable pens, • Objects from which water run: Phallus • Pipes, fountains, taps, watering-pots, hoses • Things which go ‘up’: Erection • Helicopters, aeroplanes, rockets • Penetration • Knives, weapons, swords, guns, rifles, cannons

    10. Hollow objects that contain things: Vagina • Cupboards, tunnels, boxes, bottles, suitcases, tins, pockets • Entrances: Vagina • Doors, gates, castles. • Curvy objects: Breasts • Footballs, apples, peaches, other fruits, • Playing: Masturbation • Rhythmical activities: Sexual intercourse • Dancing, climbing, riding. • Authority figures: Father + the Oedipus/Electra complex • Police, teachers, doctors…

    11. Transference • Transferring your feelings towards a certain person onto the therapist • Could be positive or negative feelings • In pairs, one person is the therapist, other is the patient • Patient to imagine that the therapist has just killed their dog, cat, ferret, etc. • What would you say to them? • You have 5 minutes to really let it out! • How did you feel afterwards?

    12. Ink blots • A type of projective test which consists of asking respondents what they see in symmetrical inkblot pictures. It is thought by some psychologists that such tests reveal aspects of the unconscious mind.

    13. Evaluation Strengths • Bergin (1971) tested 10,000 patient histories and estimated that 80% benefited from psychoanalysis is compared to 65% from electric therapies showing its success. • Tschushke (2007) investigated it as a long term therapy. More than 450 pp were used. He discovered it works better over a long period of time and adjustment.

    14. Evaluation Limitations Theoretical weaknesses – Freuds personality model is flawed then the explanations of mental illness arising from this theory must be flawed to. Appropriateness - Freud failed to appreciate the differences between individuals in the way modern psychotherapies do. The development of humanistic treatments helps, as that focus’s on the client first, not just labelling them with a theory. False memories – Claims of planting memories in patients minds by suggesting repression. No evidence to say we repress childhood memories (loftus, 1995)

    15. Plenary • In pairs, write down at least 5 key words from today’s lesson • I am going to ask each pair to give me a word that hasn’t already been used