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  1. Introducing Strategy #7 Making Inferences & Drawing Conclusions Elkhart Community Schools

  2. “To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.” ~ Ellin Keene Author of Mosaic of Thought Elkhart Community Schools

  3. Background Knowledge (schema) Making Connections Questioning Inference Drawing Conclusions Predictions Analysis of Text: Interpretation/ Judgment Imagination/ Visualization Elkhart Community Schools

  4. Inferring through ~ Questioning “Questioning and inferring work in tandem to enhance understanding of text.” ~ Harvey & Goudvis Authors of Strategies That Work Elkhart Community Schools

  5. Inferring through ~ Questioning Students’ language provides a clue to their thinking. Elkhart Community Schools

  6. Inferring through ~ Making Connections Readers are able to think inferentially when they connect their background of information, ideas, and experiences with the text. Elkhart Community Schools

  7. Inferring through ~ Background Knowledge It is important for the reader to have background knowledge about a text they are reading if they are expected to read inferentially. Elkhart Community Schools

  8. Inferring through ~ Background Knowledge Word Clues + Experience Inference Elkhart Community Schools

  9. Inferring through ~ Background Knowledge Dorothy Strickland shares, “For struggling readers, it is critical that we not only activate their knowledge of topics they must read about and study, but also be aware of situations in which they have little or no background knowledge so that we can build essential understandings before they begin reading.” Elkhart Community Schools

  10. Inferring through ~ Predictions Predicting is related to inferring - - - BUT what’s the difference? Elkhart Community Schools

  11. Inferring through ~ Imagination/Visualization “When you read, you use all your senses. You see things in your ‘mind’s eye’ and hear the sounds you connect to that about which you are reading.” ~ Guided Reading the Four Blocks Way Elkhart Community Schools

  12. Inferring through ~ Imagination/Visualization “Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.” ~ Ellin Keene Elkhart Community Schools

  13. Inferring through ~ Analysis of Text: Interpretation/Judgment “Inferring is the process of taking that which is stated in text and extrapolating it to one’s life to create a wholly original interpretation that, in turn, becomes part of one’s beliefs or knowledge.” ~ Ellin Keene Elkhart Community Schools

  14. Inferring through ~ Drawing Conclusions “Proficient readers make connections between conclusions they draw and other beliefs or knowledge.” ~ Ellin Keene Elkhart Community Schools

  15. Inferring All the processes work together. Each works in concert with the others to aid the reader in comprehending text. Elkhart Community Schools

  16. Teaching Strategies Elkhart Community Schools

  17. Teacher Modeling Step 1 – The teacher explains the strategy (reading between the lines) using short scenarios, riddles, or charades that require students to add up clues and make a conclusion. Step 2 – The teacher demonstrates how to apply the strategy successfully. Step 3 – The teacher thinks aloud to model the mental processes he/she uses when he/she reads. Elkhart Community Schools

  18. The Think Aloud • Do several think alouds for this strategy. • Use picture books for students of all ages. • Students are only observers at this stage. • Demonstrate the use of sticky notes to code connections, questions, predictions, conclusions, judgments, etc. • Allow students to discuss what they observed following the think aloud. Elkhart Community Schools

  19. Guided Practice • Use a variety of “lifted text” from different types of books giving everyone a copy or using the overhead. • Use whole group to small group model. • Use short text such as magazine and newspaper articles and poetry. • Encourage students to code their inferences with sticky notes or highlighting. • Use concept maps, two-column notes, and margin writing to record thinking. • Engage students in conversation about their inferences with the text with partners or whole group. Elkhart Community Schools

  20. Guided Practice • Guide students’ thinking before reading by using anticipation guides or prediction guides. • Show students how to do a chapter tour or preview of nonfiction text to help them make predictions about the chapter. • Point out connections between inference and the other strategies they’ve learned. • Text sets can be used to have students reflect on inferences and compare them with different books within the set. • Use a book that can create an “anchor” experience for the class. Elkhart Community Schools

  21. Independent Practice • The teacher gives the students text that is easy to read on their own. • Students may practice their strategy alone, in pairs, or in small groups such as book clubs or literature circles. • Students can discuss and compare their inferences with other students. • The teacher confers with the students and gives them feedback. Elkhart Community Schools

  22. Independent Application Assessing Application of Inference Keene’s Major Point Interview Anecdotal Records Journal Responses Other Written Responses Elkhart Community Schools

  23. Inference Using Different Types of Text Fiction and Poetry: Allows a variety of interpretation Nonfiction/Content Area Text: Permits a narrow range of interpretation Best for drawing conclusions, predictions, questioning, and determining importance Elkhart Community Schools

  24. Inferring occurs with ~ • Word meanings • Meanings of text • Meanings of larger • themes of texts Elkhart Community Schools

  25. Inferring Word Meanings ~ • Predicting Words In Text • (before reading) • Vocabulary Strategy: • Connect Two • Cloze Technique • Guess the Covered Word Elkhart Community Schools

  26. Classes of Inferences Relevant to Expository Text • Anaphoric Inferences: A pronoun or noun- • phrase that refers to a previous text constituent • or to an entity already introduced in the mental • model. • Bridging Inferences: These are any inferences that a • reader needs to systematically or conceptually relate the • sentence being read with the previous content. These are • sometimes called backward inferences. Elkhart Community Schools

  27. More Inferences... • Explanation Based Inferences: The event being read • about is explained by a causal chain or network of previous • events. These are sometimes called causal antecedent • inferences. • Goal Inferences: The reader infers that an agent has a • motive that explains an intentional action. • Elaborative Inferences: These are properties of • entities, facts, and other associations that are not explained • by causal mechanisms. Elkhart Community Schools

  28. More Inferences... • Predictive Inferences: The reader forecasts what • events will causally unfold after the current event that is • being read. These are sometimes called causal consequences • or forward references. • Process Inferences: These inferences specify the • detailed steps, manner, or dynamic characteristics of an • event as it unfolds. Elkhart Community Schools

  29. Elkhart Community Schools

  30. “Art is so much more interesting if everything isn’t in the picture. And so it is with inferring.” From: I Read It But I Don’t Get It ~ Cris Tovani Elkhart Community Schools

  31. Strategy #7 Making Inferences & Drawing Conclusions Elkhart Community Schools