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Filling and sealing of containers. By : Rasha Shalabi Dr. Mohammad sabbah Instructor :. Out line :. Introduction Rigid and semi-rigid containers Filling Sealing Check-weighing and metal detection Labeling References. introduction .

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by rasha shalabi dr mohammad sabbah instructor

Filling and sealing of containers

By : Rasha Shalabi

By : Rasha Shalabi

Dr. Mohammad sabbah Instructor :

out line
Out line :
  • Introduction
  • Rigid and semi-rigid containers
  • Filling
  • Sealing
  • Check-weighing and metal detection
  • Labeling
  • References

By : Rasha Shalabi

introduction
introduction
  • In This chapter we will describes the methods for filling and sealing food containers in small-scale processing.
  • The requirements when filling foods into containers are:

- To accurately fill the correct amount of food to prevent under-filling (a legal requirement in most countries).

- To avoid spillage or contamination of the sealing surface so that the container can be properly sealed.

By : Rasha Shalabi

rigid and semi rigid containers
Rigid and semi-rigid containers:
  • ‘Commercially clean’ metal and glass containers are supplied as palletized batches , which are wrapped in shrink or stretch film to prevent contamination.
  • They are depalletised and inverted over steam or water sprays to clean them and they remain inverted until filling to prevent recontamination

By : Rasha Shalabi

filling
Filling :
  • At a small scale of operation, large pieces are usually packed by hand whereas powders and small particulate foods can often be filled using similar fillers to those used for liquids.
  • Liquids can be either thin (e.g. milk, wines and juices) or thick (viscous) such as oils, pastes, creams, sauces or jams.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide6
cont …
  • No one type of filling machine is suitable for all types of foods and the selection of suitable equipment depends on the viscosity, temperature, particle size and foaming characteristics of the product, and the production rate required.
  • Gravity, pressure and vacuum fillers are each used for liquid foods In each case an airtight seal is made between the container and the filling head, and liquid is filled until it reaches a vent tube , which is set to give the correct fill-weight or volume.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide7
cont…
  • In manual filling, the amount of food dispensed into the container is judged by the operator, and training is required to ensure that consistent volumes are filled into every container.
  • There are a variety of dispensing machines that control the volume of liquid that is filled into each container, and do not rely on the judgement of an operator.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide8
cont…
  • Timed gravity fillers are an economical type of volumetric filling machine, but the range of applications is limited to low-viscosity liquids that do not foam (e.g. bottled water and alcoholic spirits).
  • The product is contained in a tank above a set of pneumatically operated valves. Each valve is independently timed to deliver precise amounts of liquid under gravity into the containers.

By : RashaShalabi

filling viscous liquids and liquids that contain particles
Filling viscous liquids and liquids that contain particles
  • Because viscous liquids do not flow easily, a dispenser or piston filler is the preferred option.
  • Dispensers are similar in operation to the equipment described in Fig. 1, but have a moving piston in the cylinder to pump viscous products into the container.
  • This equipment is relatively low-cost but has lower production rates than piston fillers. A small gear-pump filler can be adjusted to dispense viscous liquids at volumes from 20 -999 ml and has a an anti-drip outlet that prevents food contaminating the sealing area of the container.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide12
Cont …
  • Large particulate materials (e.g. confectioner) can be filled into containers, using a photo-electric device to count individual pieces.
  • Alternatively, a disc fitted with recesses to hold an individual item rotates below a holding container and when each recess is filled the required number are deposited in the pack.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide13
cont …
  • Care is necessary when filling solid foods or pastes, to prevent air from becoming trapped in the product , which would reduce the head space vacuum . Viscous sauces or gravies are therefore added before solid pieces of food.
  • This is less important with dilute brines or syrups, as air is able to escape before sealing.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide14
cont…
  • The functions of these added liquids are as follows:
  • to improve the rate of heat transfer into solid pieces of food
  • to displace air from the container
  • to improve flavor and acceptability
  • to act as a medium for adding colours or flavors.

By : Rasha Shalabi

sealing
Sealing
  • Different types of closures for plastic and glass containers include metal or plastic caps lids, and foil, plastic or paper covers. . In practice the selection of a package and closure depends mostly on their local
  • availability and relative cost. The choice of packaging may therefore be a compromise between what is required and what is available/affordable, the penalty being a reduction in shelf life of the food.

By : Rasha Shalabi

sealing plastic or glass bottles and jars
Sealing plastic or glass bottles and jars
  • Bottle and jar closures can be grouped into three categories:
  • Pressure seals are used mostly for carbonated beverages.
  • Normal seals, used for non-carbonated liquids (e.g. milk or wines).
  • Vacuum seals, used for hermetically sealed jars.

By : Rasha Shalabi

check weighing and metal detection
Check-weighing and metal detection
  • Scales are used to ensure that fill-weights meet legal requirements and to minimize product give-away.
  • They are tared to take account of the weight of the package and samples of products are taken from the production line to check that the net weight (i.e. the weight of product in the pack) is correct.

By : Rasha Shalabi

metal detection
metal detection
  • Contamination with metal fragments can occur during processing as a result of wear or damage to equipment, and metal detectors are therefore an important part of quality assurance in all food processing.
  • The basic components of a metal detector are a detection head, a conveyor that moves the products under the detection head, and a reject system that removes all packs that contain metal fragments.

By : Rasha Shalabi

food labeling
Food Labeling :
  • Labeling is an important process in the food processing chain and should not be overlooked .
  • The label is the first point of contact between a consumer and the producer.
  • It is used to identify one product from another and also to make a decision over which product to purchase

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide21
Cont …
  • The label is therefore the most important marketing tool for a product .
  • It should be attractive and eye catching while at the same time being informative , dirty, confused, untidy label will not help to sell a product.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide22
Cont…
  • The purpose of a food label:

- To provide consumers with information on the product .

- To advertise the product .

- To distinguish the product from that of competitors (establish a brand) .

- It is a legal requirement.

By : Rasha Shalabi

slide23
Cont…
  • The following are legal minimum requirements in most countries:

- Product name .

- Manufacturers name and address .

- Date of manufacture and best before date (sell by date) .

- Ingredients list (in descending order of weight) .

- Net weight of product in the package .

By : Rasha Shalabi