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  1. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Preview Section 1 The Rock Cycle Section 2 Igneous Rock Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Concept Mapping

  2. Section 1The Rock Cycle Bellringer Many of us work hard to recycle the items we use in our daily lives to reduce the impact we have on the environment. In a way, the Earth also recycles through the rock cycle. Can you imagine what rock might look like through each stage of the rock cycle? How long do you think it takes to recycle a soda can? What about a piece of granite? Record your thoughts in your science journal.

  3. Section 1The Rock Cycle Objectives • Describetwo ways rocks have been used by humans. • Describefour processes that shape Earth’s features. • Describehow each type of rock changes into another type as it moves through the rock cycle. • Listtwo characteristics of rock that are used to help classify it.

  4. Section 1The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle • A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter. • New rock forms from old rock material constantly. • The series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes is called the rock cycle.

  5. Section 1The Rock Cycle

  6. Section 1The Rock Cycle The Value of Rock • Rock has been an important natural resource for as long as humans have existed. • Ancient and modern civilizations have used granite, limestone, marble sandstone, slate and other rocks as construction materials. • Rock is also an important ingredient in concrete and plaster, both of which are commonly used in construction.

  7. Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth • Certain geological processes make and destroy rock. • These processes shape the features of our planet. • These processes also influence the type of rock that is found in certain areas.

  8. Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth, continued • Weathering, Erosion, and DepositionThe process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is calledweathering. • Weathering is important because it breaks down rock into fragments of which sedimentary rock is made.

  9. Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth, continued • The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another is callederosion. • The process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest is calleddeposition.

  10. Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth, continued • Heat and Pressure Sedimentary rock can also form when buried sediment is squeezed by the weight of overlaying layers of sediment. • If the temperature and pressure are high enough, the rock can change into metamorphic rock. • If the rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates the magma that eventually cools to form igneous rock.

  11. Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth, continued • How the Cycle Continues Buried rock is exposed at the Earth’s surface by a combination of uplift and erosion. • Uplift is the movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the surface. • When uplifted rock reaches the Earth’s surface, weathering, erosion, and deposition begin.

  12. Section 1The Rock Cycle Illustrating the Rock Cycle • The rock cycle is the continual process by which new rock forms from old rock material. Round and Round It Goes • Rocks may follow various pathways in the rock cycle. The following Visual Concepts presentation show the different ways rock may change when it goes through the rock cycle.

  13. Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  14. Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Classification • Rock can be three main classes based on how the rock is formed: • Igneous rock • Sedimentary rock • Metamorphic rock

  15. Section 1The Rock Cycle Types of Rock Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  16. Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Classification, continued • Each class of rock can be divided further, based on differences in the ways rocks form. • Igneous rock can be divided again based on whether the magma from which it forms cools on the Earth’s surface or below ground.

  17. Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Classification, continued • Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also divided into smaller groups. • Scientists study rocks in detail using two important criteria: composition and texture.

  18. Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Classification, continued • Composition is the chemical makeup of a rock. Composition can describe either the minerals or other materials in the rock. • Texture is the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock’s grains.

  19. Section2 Igneous Rock Bellringer Do you think rocks that cooled and solidified from lava on Earth’s surface would look different from those that cooled and solidified from magma inside the Earth? To answer this question, ask yourself how the Hawaiian Islands differ from the Rocky Mountains. Explain your answer in your science journal.

  20. Section2 Igneous Rock Objectives • Describe three ways that igneous rock forms. • Explainhow the cooling rate of magma affects the texture of igneous rock. • Distinguish between igneous rock that cools within the Earth’s crust and igneous rock that cools at the Earth’s surface.

  21. Section2 Igneous Rock Origins of Igneous Rock • Igneous rock forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and solidifies. There are three ways magma can form: • When rock is heated • When pressure is released • When rock changes composition

  22. Section2 Igneous Rock Composition and Texture of Igneous Rock • Light-colored igneous rocks are calledfelsicrocks. • Felsic rocks are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium. • Dark-colored igneous rocks are calledmaficrocks. • Mafic rocks are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium.

  23. Section2 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Formations • When magma intrudes, or pushes, into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surface and cools, the rock that forms is called intrusive igneous rock. • Intrusive igneous rock usually has a coarse-grained texture because it is well insulated by surrounding rocks and cools very slowly.

  24. Section2 Igneous Rock

  25. Section2 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Formations, continued • Igneous rock that forms from magma that erupts, or extrudes, on the Earth’s surface is called extrusive igneous rock. • Extrusive igneous rock, commonly found around volcanoes, cools quickly on the surface and contains very small crystals or no crystals.

  26. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Bellringer Tree rings are formed each year of a tree’s life cycle. Tree rings exist because the weather changes of the seasons are reflected in the tree’s bark as the tree grows. How are layers in sedimentary rock alike or different from rings in a tree? What can geologists infer from examining sedimentary rock layers? Record your response in your science journal.

  27. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Objectives • Describe the origin of sedimentary rock. • Describethe three main categories of sedimentary rock. • Describe three types of sedimentary structure.

  28. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Origins of Sedimentary Rock • Wind, water, ice, sunlight, and gravity all cause rock to physically weather into fragments. • Through erosion, these rock and mineral fragments, called sediment, are moved from one place to another. • The sediment is deposited in layers, and eventually newer layers cover the older layers.

  29. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

  30. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Origins of Sedimentary Rock, continued • The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers, or strata. • A single, horizontal layer of rock is sometimes visible for many miles.

  31. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Composition of Sedimentary Rock • Sedimentary rock is classified by the way it forms. • Clastic sedimentary rock is made of fragments of rocks cemented together by a mineral such as calcite or quartz. • Clasitc sedimentary rocks can have coarse-grained, medium-grained, or fine-grained textures.

  32. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Composition of Sedimentary Rock, continued • Chemical sedimentary rock forms from solutions of dissolved mineral and water. • As rainwater slowly makes its way to the ocean, it dissolves some of the rock material it passes through. • Some of this dissolved material eventually crystallized and forms the mineral that make up chemical sedimentary rock.

  33. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Composition of Sedimentary Rock, continued • Organic sedimentary rock is made up of the skeletons and shells of sea animals. These remains collect on the ocean floor and eventually become cemented together. • Coal is a type of organic sedimentary rock that is formed when decomposed plant material is buried beneath sediment and is changed by increasing heat and pressure.

  34. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Structures • Many features indicate the way sedimentary rock is formed. The most important feature is stratification. • Stratification is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers. • Strata differ from one another depending on the kind, size, and color of their sediment.

  35. Section3 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Structures, continued • Sedimentary rocks sometimes record the motion of wind and water waves on lakes, oceans, rivers, and sand dunes in features calledripple marks. • Structures calledmud cracksform when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out. • Even raindrop impressions can be preserved in fine-grained sediments, as small pits with raised rims.

  36. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Bellringer Write a brief description of how cookies are made. How is the mixture of raw ingredients like sedimentary rock? Do the raw ingredients of a cookie look the same after they are done baking? Describe how cookie dough metamorphoses when it is baked in an oven. Record your responses in your science journal.

  37. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Objectives • Describe two ways a rock can undergo metamorphism. • Explainhow the mineral composition of rocks changes as the rocks undergo metamorphism. • Describe the difference between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rock. • Explain how metamorphic rock structures are related to deformation.

  38. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Origins of Metamorphic Rock • Metamorphic rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition of the rock have changed.All three types of rock can be changed by heat, pressure, or a combination of both. • A rock’s texture or mineral composition can change when its surroundings change. If the temperature or pressure of the new environment is different from the one in which the rock formed, the rock will undergo metamorphism.

  39. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Origins of Metamorphic Rock, continued • Contact Metamorphism When magma moves through the crust, the magma heats the surrounding rock and changes it. • Some minerals in the surrounding rock are changed into other minerals by this increase in temperature. • The greatest change occurs where magma comes into direct contact with the surrounding rock.

  40. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Origins of Metamorphic Rock, continued • Regional metamorphism occurs when pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below other rock formations, or when large pieces of the Earth’s curst collide with each other. • The increased pressure and temperature causes rock to become deformed and chemically changed.

  41. Section4 Metamorphic Rock

  42. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Composition of Metamorphic Rock • As rocks undergo metamorphism, original minerals in a rock change into new minerals that are more stable within the new pressure and temperature conditions. • Many of these new minerals form only in meta-morphic rock. These are known as index minerals,and are used to estimate the temperature, depth, and pressure at which a rock undergoes meta-morphism.

  43. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Texture of Metamorphic Rock • All metamorphic rock has one of two textures. • Foliated Metamorphic Rock • Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock

  44. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Texture of Metamorphic Rock, continued • Foliated Metamorphic Rock The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or band is called foliated. • Foliated metamorphic rock usually contains aligned grains of flat minerals, such as biotite mica or chlorite. • Metamorphic rocks can become other metamorphic rocks if the environment changes again.

  45. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Texture of Metamorphic Rock, continued • Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or band is called nonfoliated. • Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are commonly made of one or only a few minerals. • During metamorphism, crystals of these minerals may change in size or the mineral may change in composition in a process called recrystallization.

  46. Section4 Metamorphic Rock Metamorphic Rock Structures • Metamorphic rock has features that indicates its history. These features are caused by deformation. • Deformation is a change in the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it. • These forces may cause a rock to be squeezed or stretched. Folds, or bends, in metamorphic rock are structures that indicate a rock has been deformed.

  47. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Concept Mapping Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. sedimentary metamorphic clastic regional extrusive igneous rocks intrusive

  48. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

  49. Rocks: Mineral Mixtures