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Small Group

Small Group

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Small Group

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  1. Small Group Teaching

  2. Outline • Pros and Cons of SGT • learning environment in SGT • skill involved in SGT

  3. Small Group Discussion • Pros • developing intellectual skill • changing attitude • learners’ responsibility • Cons • trained skill • need co-operation

  4. Likes • Teachers • atmosphere • hear ideas • on-to-one working • see the understanding • students • share ideas • individual attention • particular problem

  5. Dislikes • Teachers • keep quiet • students’ discipline • not to answer • students’ behavior in group • students • peer behavior • threatening

  6. Common Mistakes • discussion will happen automatically • teacher speak too much • 7-70% of the time • no deep questions • threatening environment • spoon-feeder teachers & passive students

  7. Why so passive? • principle: students avoid all possibility to ‘look silly’ • feel free to ask questions of the instructor and their peers • feel free to answer questions • not feel threatened by giving an incorrect response

  8. Successful Interaction • ~ teachers’ responsibility • physical setting • instructor attitude ~ listening • calling student • wait time • responding to student’s question • handling student

  9. Physical Setting • 5-8 students = ideal • audibility • participation: student • close to each others • see each others • circle is the best

  10. Quite Big Group • buzz group • fishbowl • crossover • circular • horseshoe

  11. Buzz Group

  12. Fishbowl

  13. Crossover Group

  14. Circular Questioning

  15. Horseshoe Group

  16. Diagram wait... questions think... listen respond question correct answer incorrect

  17. Skills in SGT • questioning • listening • responding

  18. We use question to... • stimulate thinking • assess student progress • check on teacher clarity • motivate student attention • maintain classroom control • provide repetition • emphasize key point

  19. Types of Questions • ~ Bloom’s taxonomy • knowledge • who, what, where, when • comprehension • explain…, what… means • application • problem solving

  20. Types of Questions • ~ Bloom’s taxonomy • analysis • what are the factors… • outline…, diagram... • synthesis • what might happen if... • evaluation • what do you think about...

  21. Types of Questions • lower level | higher level • frequently higher level Q • open-ended | close-ended • avoid close-ended • divergent | convergent

  22. Good question • purposeful and appropriate • clear, specific and short • natural • thought provoking • one by one | avoid shotgun • one question, one concept

  23. Avoided Questions • close-ended • tugging • guessing • leading • vague

  24. While they’re responding • you are • listening • encouraging them to continue • keep the focus of the class on them

  25. Listening Skill You hear What is said Be-lieve Re- member You listen Understand

  26. Fact about Listening • thought / speech Ratio • 4-5 : 1 • extra lag time • we are inefficient listeners • listening skill suffers with age • listening is hard work • listening training unavailable

  27. 10 Worst Listening Habits 1. call the subject matter uninteresting 2. criticize the delivery or appearance of the speaker 3. become too stimulated 4. listen only for facts 5. try to outline everything that is being said

  28. 10 Worst Listening Habits 6. fake attention 7. accept or create distraction 8. evade the difficult 9. submit to emotional word 10. waste thought power

  29. No Answer, Why? • do not understand • not enough thinking time • forget the question while thinking • unclear • too difficult

  30. Waiting & Silence • fact about waiting • not inappropriate • give the students time to think • or you will set an undesirable norm • waiting time • > 3 sec • 3-5 sec for lower level answer • 8-12 sec for higher level • more than 20 sec = punishment

  31. Increase Wait Time • increase No. of student participate • increase length of responses • increase appropriate answer • increase st-st intearction • increase student question

  32. Calling on Students • by their names • avoid pointing • ask to the whole class • call on volunteer is OK

  33. How to call on students? • speaking in a non-threatening tone • positive non-verbal cues: smiling, eye contact • no insulting in case they cannot respond • ask for help from peers • ask first, call later

  34. How to call on students? • randomly select • avoid repeating students’ respond • deal with dominate student • ‘Any questions?’ is not always OK • look at the student, not note, after the question • compatible verbal and non-verbal

  35. Students’ Responses • positive reinforce • verbal | non-verbal • not too much => sincerity • probe • make them aware higher level • elaborate • adjust | refocus => new topic • redirect => new student • rephrase • reword • provide more information • break the questions

  36. Students’ Questions • listening • answer it yourself • only when no time in class • redirect • attempt to help him answer his own • quite threatening • meet after class • cons: maybe not only one • give the resource • defer the question, not both question and student

  37. Students’ Questions • don’t fake an answer when you don’t know it, but • ask whether the others know • propose a plan to get the answer • suggest the resource • volunteer to find the answer yourself

  38. Assess Questioning Skill • videotape self review • peer-review • survey on questioning • student evaluation of questioning skill