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25.2 Industrialization. The factory system changes the way people live and work, introducing a variety of problems. Industrialization Changes Life. Factory Work Factories pay more than farms, spur demand for more expensive goods Industrial Cities Rise

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25 2 industrialization

25.2 Industrialization

The factory system changes the way people live and work, introducing a variety of problems

industrialization changes life
Industrialization Changes Life
  • Factory Work
    • Factories pay more than farms, spur demand for more expensive goods
  • Industrial Cities Rise
    • Urbanization—city-building and movement of people to cities
    • Growing population provides work force and a market for factory goods
    • British industrial cities: London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool
industrialization changes life1
Industrialization Changes Life
  • Living Conditions
    • Sickness widespread; epidemics, like cholera, sweep urban slums
    • Life span in one large city is only 17 years
    • Wealthy merchants, factory owners live in luxurious suburban homes
    • Rapidly growing cities lack sanitary codes and building codes
    • Cities also without adequate housing, education, and police protection
industrialization changes life2
Industrialization Changes Life
  • Working Conditions
    • Average working day is 14 hours for 6 days a week, year round
    • Dirty, poorly lit factories injure workers
    • Many coal miners killed by coal dust
class tensions grow
Class Tensions Grow
  • The Middle Class
    • Middle class—skilled workers, merchants, rich farmers, professionals
    • Emerging middle class looked down on by landowners and aristocrats
    • Middle class has comfortable standard of living
class tensions grow1
Class Tensions Grow
  • The Working Class
    • Laborers’ lives not improved; some laborers replaced by machines
    • Luddites and other groups destroy machinery that puts them out of work
    • Unemployment is a serious problem; unemployed workers riot
positive effects of the industrial revolution
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Immediate Benefits
    • Creates jobs, enriches nation, encourages technological progress
    • Education expands, clothing cheaper, diet and housing improve
    • Workers eventually win shorter hours, better wages and conditions
  • Long-Term Effects
    • Improved living and working conditions still evident today
    • Governments use increased tax revenues for urban developments
case study manchester
Case Study: Manchester
  • Children in Manchester Factories
    • Children as young as 6 work in factories; many are injured
    • 1819 Factory Act restricts working age, hours
    • Factory pollution fouls air, poisons river
    • Nonetheless, Manchester produces consumer goods and creates wealth
case study manchester1
Case Study: Manchester
  • The Mills of Manchester
    • Manchester has labor, water, power, nearby port at Liverpool.
    • Poor live and work in unhealthy, even dangerous environment
    • Business owners make profits by risking their own money on factories
    • Eventually, working class sees its standard of living rise some