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AP Final Review. Nuclear Chemistry . Main topics: Types of decay Alpha Beta Positron Basic Half life problems . Example problems. What type of decay results in a U-238 nucleus becoming a Th-234 nucleus? What type of decay results in the atomic number decreasing by 1?

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nuclear chemistry
Nuclear Chemistry
  • Main topics:
    • Types of decay
      • Alpha
      • Beta
      • Positron
    • Basic Half life problems
example problems
Example problems
  • What type of decay results in a U-238 nucleus becoming a Th-234 nucleus?
  • What type of decay results in the atomic number decreasing by 1?
  • What is the half life of a substance if an initial amount of 30 grams of the substance has a mass of only 3.75 grams after 60 years.
types of reactions
Types of Reactions
  • Decomposition- (redox)
  • Synthesis- (redox)
  • Double Replacement (neutralization or ppt)
  • Single Replacement (redox)
  • Combustion – organic compound + oxygen  carbon dioxide and water
combustion example problem
Combustion example problem
  • What mass of carbon dioxide is produced if 30 grams of propane are combusted?
  • 0.487 grams of quinine (molar mass = 324 g/mol) is combusted and found to produce 1.321 g CO2, 0.325 g H2O and 0.0421 g nitrogen. Determine the empirical and molecular formulas. Compound contains C,H,N,O
answers
answers
  • 90 grams
  • C10H12NO (empirical) C20H24N2O2 (molecular)
calorimetry
Calorimetry
  • q=msΔT
    • Remember units! q=J m=g s= J/gK T=⁰C or K
  • Bomb calorimetry- the bomb has a heat capacity where the mass has already been factored in, so we don’t need the mass in the formula any more.
    • Just use q= heat capacity * ΔT
example problem
Example Problem
  • When a 10.00 g sample of the rocket fuel hydrazine, N2H4, is burned in a bomb calorimeter which contains 1200. g of water, the temperature rises from 24.62°C to 28.16°C. If the C for the bomb is 840. J/°C, calculate
  • qreaction for combustion of a one-gram sample
  • Molar heat of combustion for hydrazine
answers1
answers
  • 297 J
  • 9530 J/mol
limiting reactants
Limiting Reactants
  • Whenever you are asked for an amount of product produced

ALWAYS think Limiting reactants!

example problem1
Example problem
  • At STP, 3.0 liters of hydrogen gas react with 2.0 liters of nitrogen gas to form ammonia. If the reaction goes to completion, how many grams of ammonia will be formed?
answers2
answers
  • 1.5 grams
naming
Naming
  • Types:
    • Binary Ionic compounds (only 2 element)
      • Sodium chloride -NaCl
    • Molecular compounds (covalently bonded)
      • Dinitrogen monoxide -N2O
    • Ionic compounds with polyatomic ions (including oxyanions)
      • Calcium hypochlorite -Ca(ClO)2
    • Acids (Hydrogen with anion)
      • Carbonous acid- H2CO2
organic naming
Organic Naming
  • Alkanes- all single bonds (-ane ending)
    • Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane
  • Alcohols, have OH on the end
    • Methanol, ethanol, etc.
naming practice
Naming Practice
  • Propanol
  • Potassium acetate
  • Perchloric acid
  • Aluminum nitrate
  • Phosphoric acid
  • Phosphorus pentachloride
  • Butane
  • Bromic acid