new policy spaces in education molly warrington university of cambridge n.
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New Policy Spaces in Education Molly Warrington, University of Cambridge. Focus + structure. Spaces of inequality – places where educational deprivation concentrated Despite unprecedented emphasis on education + spatial policies – equity hasn’t improved

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Presentation Transcript
focus structure
Focus + structure
  • Spaces of inequality – places where educational deprivation concentrated
  • Despite unprecedented emphasis on education + spatial policies – equity hasn’t improved
  • Factors contributing to overall failure to improve equity
  • Although new policy spaces of education, policy still driven by the centre
an emphasis on education
An emphasis on education
  • Education Acts passed almost every year
  • Emphasis on standards and assessment
  • Policy centralisation
  • But also localisation
  • Increasing focus on parental responsibility
  • Greater role for private sector – quasi-markets
spatially focused initiatives
Spatially-focused initiatives
  • Education Action Zones
  • Excellence in Cities
  • Academies
  • Increased resources with a redistributive element
  • A government committed to a socially inclusive education system
  • New data (eg PLASC) enable greater knowledge of equity issues: who is achieving / not achieving and where
a socially inclusive education system
A socially inclusive education system?
  • Little evidence that equity achieved (Ainscow et al, 2008)
  • Segregation between secondary schools increased (Gorard, 2009)
  • A widening achievement gap between the most and least successful schools (Barker, 2008)
  • Socially mobility stagnant (Cabinet Office, 2009)
  • Policies to improve education benefiting the middle classes (Commission for Social Mobility, 2009)
slide6
Children of parents in manual occupations less likely to be in education, training or work post-16 (Archer, 2005)
  • Fewer students from working-class backgrounds go to university (Vandenberghe, 2007); tend to choose ‘new’ universities (Reay, 2001, Warrington, 2008), with poorer labour market outcomes (Keep & Mayhew, 2004)
slide7
Overall impact of spatially-focused policies limited (eg, Morris & Rutt, 2005, Machin et al, 2005)
  • ‘No clear evidence that academies work to produce better results than the kind of school they replaced’ (Gorard, 2009)
  • though some
  • exceptions: ‘a phoenix
  • rising from the ashes
  • in the very heart of
  • the inner city’
slide8

WHY DOES INEQUITY PERSIST?

People & Places

Schools

Policies

Socio-economic /

Socio-cultural

factors

Context of

challenging

environments

Choice and

marketisation

  • Education holding
  • little value
  • Lack of cultural
  • capital
  • Effects of peer
  • pressure
  • Not all parents
  • equally able
  • to exercise
  • choice
new policy spaces or a continuation of old ones
New policy spaces or a continuation of old ones?
  • Academies as the new policy space – private sponsors - have role in schools’ governance, staff terms and conditions – publicly-funded private schools
  • YET ‘old’ policy spaces remain
  • A growing centralisation, leading to tension between national and local space
  • Policy driven by needs of capital and demands of knowledge economy, with inadequate recognition of complexity of place
  • Thus, ‘in relation to social class the more things change the more they stay the same’ (Reay, 2003)