Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
C. 4 假設語氣的用法 • I. 條件式(conditional)的假設語 • A. 事實條件式(??factual conditionals)--現在及未來式 • B. 非事實條件式(??unreal conditionals) --現在及過去式 • C. Wish的用法:過去與現在式 • II. 假設法語氣(subjunctive)
假設語氣的用法I • 條件式(conditional)的假設語: 為表達一種希望,然這希望卻須在某種條件下才可能發生的: • If he were here, I would be much happier.(解釋: 因為他不在這兒,所以我不特別快樂) • Jane said that if she were twenty years old, she would live in Egypt. • (解釋:Jane的條件須為20歲才能住Egypt;然而她現在已不是了,所以無法住在Egypt)
A. 事實條件式--現在式 • 1. 由If子句和結果子句組合. • 2. 所表述的為一般事實或科學的實證;兩個子句動詞均用簡單現在式. • If 子句 結果子句 • If it’s 8a.m. in Chia-Yi, it’s 5p.m. in Tucson. = • It is 5p.m. in Tucson if it’s 8a.m. in Chia-Yi.
A. 事實條件式--現在式 • 3. 也可表達一種習慣或經常性發生的事情;此時If子句可用簡單現在式或現在進行式表達;結果子句則只用簡單現在式. • E.g. If Jane goes to bed, she puts stuff animals by her side.(=Jane puts stuff animals by her side if she goes to bed.) • E.g. If he cannot fall asleep, he watches old movies.(=He watches old movies if he cannot sleep.)
A. 事實條件式--現在式 • 4. 在結果子句可用命令式語氣的動詞以表述指令或邀請的句子. • Go swimming if you want to lose weight. • If you want to live happy, live simple. • Finish the project if you want to graduate.
A. 事實條件式--現在式 • 5. 問句: • Do people in Tanzania suffer from drought if it doesn’t rain? Yes, they do./No, they don’t. • Will the train station in Germany close down if the storm hits? Yes, it will./No, it won’t.
A. 事實條件式--未來式 • 1. 在假設語裡,結果子句以未來式陳述,為的是表達在某一情形下可能將發生的事: • e.g. If the car is not ready in thirty minutes, the gangster willkill the hostage. • E.g. The police will shot at the thief if he’sgoing to run. • **雖然結果子句的動詞為未來式,If子句的動詞仍為現在式.
A. 事實條件式--未來式 • 2. If 和Unless均在假設語句中出現;不過意義上不盡相同.Unless陳述負面的條件句. • E.g. If a robbery occurs, the alarm will beactivated. • E.g. Unless a robbery occurs, the alarm will not be activated.= If a robbery doesn’t occur, the alarm will not be activated.
A. 事實條件式--未來式 • 3. 問句: • Is the thief going to run if the police pulls out their guns? Yes, he will./ No, he won’t. • Will the alarm go off if a robbery occurs?
非事實條件式--現在式 • 1. 形容不真實,不可能發生或想像不到的事: • e.g. I would live in Africa if I were in my twenties.= If I were in my twenties, I would live in Africa. (解釋:事實上我已非二十幾歲,所以我不可能住在Africa) • e.g. If Sarah had a billion dollar, she would build a public library.(解釋:但Sarah沒有one billion dollar,所以她無法建一座圖書館)
非事實條件式--現在式 • 注意事項!! • 1. 在If子句中的動詞為簡單過去式,結果子句則為would + 原形動詞. • 2. 雖然If子句動詞為過去式,然而句子本身並不是過去式:e.g.If Zoe were tall, she would reach the roof. • 3.Would have的縮寫: would’ve • Would not have= wouldn’t have
非事實條件式--現在式 • 4. 若If子句為Be動詞,則一律用were(不論是第一或第三人稱): e.g.If she were daring, she would run after the thief. • 5.有些句子可能以“If I were you…”為起頭,通常這些句子有給與建議的意味:e.g. If I were you, I would save up money and travel around the world.
非事實條件式--過去式 • 1. 句型: If….過去完成式, would have + 過去分詞If子句 結果子句 • e.g. If James had had courage, he would have gone skydiving. (= James would have gone skydiving if he had had courage.)
非事實條件式--過去式 • 2. 這類句子所表達的為一個過去從未發生過的情況和結果: • e.g. If she had left the pub earlier, she would not have met the drunk on the street. • (解釋: • 假設情況:她提前離開pub骯;她並沒遇見醉漢. • 事實情況:然而她未提前離開pub,所以她遇到一醉漢)
非事實條件式--過去式 • 3. 此種句型的句子也可用來表示後悔的心情: • e.g. If I hadn‘t gone to the party for five hours, I would have finished my paper by now. (解釋:我後悔去了舞會,導致報告還未結束) • e.g. If she had learnt the skill well, she would have finished the task fine.(解釋:她後悔沒學好該有的技術)
Wish的用法:過去和現在式 • 1. wish + 過去式* = 表達目前並非真實卻希望成真的願望. *在此種句型中,動詞Be均為“were”. • E.g. Zoe wishes she were a famous pianist. (解釋: Zoe不是一位有名的鋼琴家,但她希望她是) • 2.wish + 過去完成式= 表達對過去事情有所後悔. • E.g. Jeff wishes he had worked harder on his thesis.(解釋:Jeff並不認真的寫論文,而現在則悔不當初)
Wish的用法:過去和現在式 • 3. Wish + would* =以表達抱怨或後悔的語氣: I wish you would behave yourself, especially in front of your children. • *would不可用will代替. • 4. Wish + could* =以表達能力的句子: • Joji wishes he could spend less in shopping to save up more money for travelling. • *could不可用can代替.
假設語氣的用法II • 假設法語氣(subjunctive): • 1. 表達想像或希望一件事情的發生(假想一種情況),通常為一件重要的事情: • It is necessary thatwehand inthe demo tothe producer by the end of this month. = • If we were to hand in the demo by the end of this month, the producer would be happy.
假設語氣的用法II • 2. 常見句型: • It is important/necessary/ vital/essential + that…+ 命令式動詞(原型動詞) • 常見動詞:request, demand, insist, suggest,…+ that • The committee requests that you attend tomorrow morning. • He suggests that you be punctual.
假設語氣的用法II • 3. 在這些句子中,不論是現在或過去式,動詞皆為原型: • It is essential that she practice cello every day. • It was essential that she practice cello every day. • He asked that they not shout. • He asks that they not shout.
假設語氣的用法II • 4. 有時在這些句子中,由於一件事情的重要性,會用should + 原型動詞: • James insists that we should stay longer. • It is vital that Daisy should not be late.