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Sources and Citations. Reliability of Sources. Reliable or Questionable?. Official government websites (. gov ) Blogs Web forums YouTube Wikipedia Textbooks Individual or business websites Peer -reviewed journals N ews sources Universities or Educational Institution sites (. edu ).

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reliable or questionable
Reliable or Questionable?
  • Official government websites (.gov)
  • Blogs
  • Web forums
  • YouTube
  • Wikipedia
  • Textbooks
  • Individual or business websites
  • Peer-reviewed journals
  • News sources
  • Universities or Educational Institution sites (.edu)
chicago manual style1
Chicago Manual Style
  • Citation Appears in Two Places: Chicago requires that you cite sources consulted in the body of your paper (“in-text citations” or footnotes/endnotes) and in the bibliography.
why cite when cite
Why Cite? When Cite?
  • You need to cite all sources that you have consulted, even if you present the ideas from these sources in your own words.
  • Summarizing,

paraphrasing and

direct quotations

footnotes endnotes
  • Wherever you incorporate another person’s words, facts, or ideas, insert a footnote or endnote.
    • Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page within your paper.
    • Endnotes are numbered citations listed on a separate page at the end of the research paper (before the bibliography).
  • Short form notesmay be used if all sources are included in the bibliography
  • The information and proper format needed in the footnotes/endnotes are included in your handout or can be found online.
  • Online citation machines?
footnotes endnotes1
  • Ibid
  • If you cite the exact same resource multiple times, one immediately after the other, you can replace the normal note format with ‘Ibid’ and the page number/s.
  • Example: Ibid., 121.
  • The bibliography appears at the end of your paper – it is a list of all sources cited within your paper.
  • List entries in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names. If no author is provided, then use the title instead.
  • Single space each entry in the bibliography and double space between entries.
  • Indent the second and subsequent lines of the entry (tab once to indent).
  • Separate Primary and Secondary sources
  • Title Page
  • Spacing
  • Page numbers
  • Italics / Quotations
title page
Title Page
  • Include the title, author, teacher’s name and date
  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.Your name, the date and teacher’s name should follow several lines later
  • Do not include a page number on the title page
  • What is the purpose of a title?
  • Double-space the body of the paper. 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins.
  • Single space footnotes/endnotes
  • Single space bibliographies, leaving a blank line between entries.
page numbers
Page Numbers
  • Every page of your paper must be assigned a page number, except the title page.
  • Insert page numbers on the far right at the top of the page.
italics and quotations
Italics and Quotations
  • Italics: Titles of books and journals in the body of the paper should be in italics.
  • Quotations: Articles, chapters and poems etc should be in quotation marks.