9/16 – 9/17 • Can you list 3 problems that needed solving at the end of WWI? • Can you name 3 of the main leaders who attended the Paris Peace Conference and their aims? • List 3 things in the Treaty of Versailles that would have angered the German people • Pass up your TAKE HOME TEST (WWI Paper II) • Answer the following questions in your ICEBREAKER section of your binder:
Your task Imagine you run a German newspaper that is angry with the Treaty of Versailles. In teams design a front page that includes: • A powerful headline that captures the mood of ordinary Germans • A strong opening paragraph that sums up the treaty • A summary of the main points of the Treaty • An explanation of why so many Germans are shocked and angry • A comment on the Big Three – if you like as a cartoon.
Paris Peace Conference….Day #2 • What were the aims of the participants and peacemakers of the Paris Peace Settlement?
Defeated Colonies • A 3 Tiered system was agreed upon: • A) Virtual independence, but with military and administrative assistance – used in the case of Arab areas taken from Turkey. • B) Administration by a western country to protect the natives. • C) Administration as a virtual colony of the mandated power – to be used in the case of thinly populated or remote areas.
The Middle East • Three key issues dominated discussions: • Arab self determination had to be addressed. Promises were made by the British. Would they be met? • Britain and France had imperial designs on the region. Control of oil was already an issue. • Britain made war-time promises to Zionists. Would a Jewish homeland be granted? Did this mean a Jewish country?
The Middle East • In the final compromise, A-type mandates were set. • Britain got Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq (including Kuwait). • France got Syria and Lebanon. • The Jews did not get a homeland.
The Middle East - Turkey • War between Turkey and Greece ensued, with the Turks triumphant. • Ethnic cleansing occurred on both sides. • These countries have resented each other ever since.
The Military Commission • There was serious infighting here. • France wanted German power permanently broken. • In a compromise, German power would be limited – but the powers would also commit themselves to disarmament in the future. • Would they actually follow through? • Germany’s armed forces would be tiny: 100,000 men; no air force, a minimal navy with no capital ships.
The Western Agreement • France wanted control of the Rhineland, but LG felt this would just repeat the Alsace-Lorraine problem of the pre-war years. • LG proposed an American-British guarantee of France against unprovoked German attack. This would end the age old British fear of a continental commitment.
The Western Agreement • The Allies nearly fell out on this. Wilson threatened to quit the conference and sign a separate peace with Germany. • Finally a compromise was reached. • The Saar would be under League of Nations control for 15 years – followed by a plebiscite. • The Rhineland would be demilitarized and temporarily occupied, until it was clear that Germany was obeying the treaty.
The Eastern Agreement • Clearly events in Russia would strongly influence this. • In 1919, the outlook was distinctly unclear. • The Delegates at Paris strongly wanted to isolate the Soviets to bring about their defeat.
The Eastern Agreement - Poland • France wanted a strong Poland – allied with France against Germany – a replacement for the lost Russian ally. • Britain wanted a small, cohesive Poland. • Wilson, thinking about the Polish vote in America, was sympathetic to the Poles.
The Eastern Agreement - Poland • Poland was given a generous deal. • It won access to the sea as it was granted German populated East Prussian territory. • It was granted considerable territory in the East – at the cost of Russia.
The Eastern Agreement - Czechoslovakia • Britain was sympathetic to the Czechs, as many former Russian prisoners fought for the British after gaining freedom. • Problems existed though: • 3 million Germans lived in the Sudeten area, claimed by the Czechs. • Other ethnic minorities existed throughout the former Austro-Hungarian lands.
The Eastern Agreement – AustriaTreaty of St. Germain • Old Austria was thoroughly dismembered. • It would emerge a tiny nation of 7 million – fully 2 million in its ethnically diverse capital. • Vienna, once hub of a great empire, was now cut off • The country might not be economically viable. • Anschluss – union with Germany – was expressly forbidden.