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Citrate - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Alanine Glycine Cysteine Serine Threonine Tryptophan. Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan. Isoleucine Leucine Tryptophan. Pyruvate. Aspartate Asparagine. Acetyl CoA. Acetoacetyl CoA. Glutamate Glutamine Histidine Proline Arginine. Oxaloacetate. Tyrosine

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    1. Alanine Glycine Cysteine Serine Threonine Tryptophan Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan Isoleucine Leucine Tryptophan Pyruvate Aspartate Asparagine Acetyl CoA Acetoacetyl CoA Glutamate Glutamine Histidine Proline Arginine Oxaloacetate Tyrosine Phenylalanine Aspartate Citrate Fumarate Succinyl CoA -Ketoglutarate Isoleucine Methionine Valine

    2. Classification of Amino Acids • Amino acids that can form gluconeogenic precursors are called “glucogenic” (pyruvate, -ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate, or OAA) • Amino acids that form acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate are called “ketogenic” • Many are BOTH

    3. H2 C C H2 H2 C C COO- N H -Kg Glu COO- COO- COO- + + + H3N-C-H H3N-C-H H3N-C-H CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CHO COO- NH3 NH4+ H2O Glutamate Family L-Arginine H2O L-Proline Glutamate Semialdehyde NAD(P) Ornithine L-Glutamine L-Histidine L-Glutamate -Ketoglutarate

    4. L-Phenylalanine Pyruvate H H H Alanine CH2C-COO- CH2C-COO- CH2-COO- CH2C-COO- CH2C-COO- NH3 NH3 O CO2 OH L-Phenylalanine Phenylalanine hydroxylase O2 HO L-Tyrosine Phenylketonuria Phenylpyruvate H2O NADH Phenyllactate Phenylacetate

    5. P. 637 HO H H C=C H COO- O=C CH2 C-COO- CH2C-COO- HO CH2 C CH2-COO- NH3 O H C=C H O COO- O=C CH2 C CH2-COO- HO OH O CH2-COO- Oxidized L-Tyrosine Tyrosine amino transferase Maleylacetoacetate Homogentisate oxidase Homogentisate Fumarylacetoacetate Alcaptonuria O2 Fumarate + acetoacetate

    6. OH SH CH2 CH2 Succinyl CoA CH2 H3N-CH-COO- H3N-CH-COO- Propionyl CoA CH3 CH2 S CH2-SH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH COO- COO- C=O NH4 H3N-CH NH3+ NH3+ COO- COO- Methionine P 630 Cysteine is made from Methionine and Methionine goes to Succinyl CoA Homocysteine + Serine -H2O Cystathione -lyase  + -Ketobutyrate Cysteine Cystathionine

    7. H H H CH3-C-COO- O2S-CH2-C-COO- HS-CH2-C-COO- = +NH3 +NH3 +NH3 CO2 = O3S-CH2-CH2-NH3+ HS-CH2C-COO- O [S] 2RSH -Kg H2S Glutamate CH3C-COO- O Sulfinic acid p625 O2 Cysteine -NH4+ -Mercaptopyruvate Taurine Alanine Glycine SO42- Serine Pyruvate -H2O Sulfate -NH4

    8. H HO-CH2-C-COO- +NH3 CH2=C-COO- +NH3 NH4 CH3-C-COO- NH2 H2O CH3C-COO- O Serine Serine dehydratase -H2O Requires pyridoxal-5-PO4 Pyruvate

    9. R’ R’ CH CH -C-COO- -C-CO~SCoA R R O O Leucine Valine Isoleucine Branch chain aminotransferase (Not in liver) TPP Lipoate FAD NAD+ -Keto acid dehydrogenase Complex HS-CoA Maple Syrup Urine Disease