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Citrate Cycle (CC) - exercise -. Vladimíra Kvasnicová. Citrate cycle is also called. citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycle electron transport chain. Citrate cycle is also called. citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycle electron transport chain.

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citrate cycle cc exercise

Citrate Cycle (CC)- exercise -

Vladimíra Kvasnicová

citrate cycle is also called
Citrate cycle is also called
  • citric acid cycle
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle
  • Krebs cycle
  • electron transport chain
citrate cycle is also called1
Citrate cycle is also called
  • citric acid cycle
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle
  • Krebs cycle
  • electron transport chain
slide4
The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2
slide5
simplification:

The figure is found at http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~bi107vc/images/mol/krebs_cycle.gif (December 2006)

slide6
citric acid

(2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylicacid)

slide7
Hans Adolf Krebs

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 for his discovery of the citric acid cycle.

slide8
= the other metabolic pathway

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

citrate cycle
Citrate cycle
  • is a catabolic pathway
  • participates in anabolic reactions
  • belongs among oxidative processes
  • produces carbon dioxide
citrate cycle1
Citrate cycle
  • is a catabolic pathway
  • participates in anabolic reactions
  • belongs among oxidative processes
  • produces carbon dioxide
slide11
The figure is found at http://www.holon.se/folke/kurs/Distans/Ekofys/Recirk/Eng/regcyc5.jpg (December 2006)
slide12
Amphibolic nature of thecitrate cycle

The figure is found athttp://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html

enzymes of the citrate cycle
Enzymes of the citrate cycle
  • are found in all cells
  • are located in a mitochondrion
  • catalyze freely reverzible reactions
  • produce coenzymes which are regenerated in a respiratory chain
enzymes of the citrate cycle1
Enzymes of the citrate cycle
  • are found in all cells
  • are located in a mitochondrion
  • catalyze freely reverzible reactions
  • produce coenzymes which are regenerated in a respiratory chain
slide15
strongly exergonic reactions

The figure is found at http://www.metabolic-database.com/html/body_glutaminolysis__zeichnung3.html (December 2006)

the substances enter the cc
The substances enter the CC
  • acetyl~CoA
  • NAD+ and FAD
  • carbon skeleton of amino acids
  • GDP
the substances enter the cc1
The substances enter the CC
  • acetyl~CoA (→ 2 CO2)
  • NAD+ and FAD (→ NADH+H+ + FADH2)
  • carbon skeleton of amino acids
  • GDP (→ GTP)
slide18
The figure is found at http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/590metabolism.gif (December 2006)
choose products of the cycle
Choose products of the cycle
  • pyruvate
  • acetyl-CoA
  • NADH
  • FADH2
choose products of the cycle1
Choose products of the cycle
  • pyruvate
  • acetyl-CoA
  • NADH(→ electron transport chain)
  • FADH2(→ electron transport chain)
slide21
Products of the citrate cycle

The figure is found at http://www.hupe.hu/szerv/tanszekek/kio/im/oktat/SEJTBIO/citratkor/citr_summa_e.html (December 2006)

energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the cc is conserved in1
Energy released from oxidation of acetyl group in the CC is conserved in
  • GTP(succinyl~Co → succinate)
  • ATP (GTP + ADP → GDP + ATP)
  • NADH (3x)
  • FADH2 (1x)
slide24
The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)
nad is reduced to nadh h in the reactions of the cc
NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+ in the reactions of the CC
  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate
  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA
  • succinate → fumarate
  • malate → oxaloacetate
nad is reduced to nadh h in the reactions of the cc1
NAD+ is reduced to NADH+H+ in the reactions of the CC
  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate
  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA
  • succinate → fumarate
  • malate → oxaloacetate
slide27
„F“ →Fumarateand FADH2

The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)

carbon dioxide co 2 is produced in the reactions of the cc
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in the reactions of the CC
  • oxaloacetate + acetyl~CoA → citrate
  • citrate → isocitrate
  • isocitrate → -ketoglutarate
  • -ketoglutarate → succinyl~CoA
carbon dioxide co 2 is produced in the reactions of the cc1
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in the reactions of the CC
  • oxaloacetate(C4) + acetyl~CoA(C2) → citrate(C6)
  • citrate (C6)→ isocitrate (C6)
  • isocitrate (C6)→ -ketoglutarate(C5)
  • -ketoglutarate(C5)→ succinyl~CoA(C4)

! count number of carbons !

slide30
The figure is found at http://lecturer.ukdw.ac.id/dhira/Metabolism/Respiration.html (December 2006)
choose reactions that lead to net synthesis of cc intermediates anaplerotic reactions
Choose reactions that lead tonet synthesis of CC intermediates(= anaplerotic reactions)
  • pyruvate → acetyl~CoA (PDH)
  • pyruvate → oxaloacetate (pyruvate carboxylase)
  • aspartate → oxaloacetate (AST)
  • glutamate → -ketoglutarate (ALT)
choose reactions that lead to net synthesis of cc intermediates anaplerotic reactions1
Choose reactions that lead tonet synthesis of CC intermediates(= anaplerotic reactions)
  • pyruvate → acetyl~CoA(PDH)
  • pyruvate → oxaloacetate(pyruvate carboxylase)
  • aspartate → oxaloacetate(AST) – the reaction consumes 2-oxoglutarate (+1 -1 = 0 net synthesis)
  • glutamate → -ketoglutarate(ALT)
slide33
The figure is found at http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/tca-cycle.html (prosinec 2006)
slide34
The most important anaplerotic reaction:

pyruvate carboxylase

The figure is found at http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/illingworth/metabol/2120lec3.htm#krebs (December 2006)

slide37
Citrate cycleas a source of substrates used in a synthesis of other molecules

The figure is found athttp://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/gif/13.html

the enzymes regulate velocity of the cc
The enzymes regulate velocity of the CC
  • citrate synthase
  • isocitrate dehydrogenase
  • -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  • hexokinase
the enzymes regulate velocity of the cc1
The enzymes regulate velocity of the CC
  • citrate synthase
  • isocitrate dehydrogenase
  • -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  • hexokinase
the citrate cycle is inhibited by
The citrate cycle is inhibited by
  •  ATP/ADP
  •  NADH,  NAD+
  •  NADH/NAD+
  •  AMP
the citrate cycle is inhibited by1
The citrate cycle is inhibited by
  •  ATP/ADP
  •  NADH,  NAD+
  •  NADH/NAD+
  •  AMP
regulation of the citrate cycle
Regulation of the citrate cycle

= by availability of substrates and consumption of produts

citrate
Citrate
  • is formed from oxaloacetate and acetic acid
  • is transported to the cytoplasm if accumulates
  • acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis
  • activates synthesis of fatty acids
citrate1
Citrate
  • is formed from oxaloacetate and acetic acid
  • is transported to the cytoplasm if accumulates
  • acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis
  • activates synthesis of fatty acids

energy excess → it is stored in a glycogen and fat

slide45
ATP

The figure is found at http://www.metabolic-database.com/html/body_glutaminolysis__zeichnung3.html (December 2006)

slide46
see next presentation

The figure is adopted from the book: Devlin, T. M. (editor): Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, 4th ed. Wiley‑Liss, Inc., New York, 1997. ISBN 0‑471‑15451‑2

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