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Martha Rogers The Science of Unitary & Irreducible Human Beings

Martha Rogers The Science of Unitary & Irreducible Human Beings

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Martha Rogers The Science of Unitary & Irreducible Human Beings

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  1. Martha RogersThe Science of Unitary & Irreducible Human Beings Denise Barger, BSN, RN Pat Schlagel, BSN, RN Lisa Thielke, BSN, RN Minnesota State University Moorhead Nursing 600

  2. Grand Nursing Theorist Martha Rogers

  3. Introduction Video

  4. Origins • Rogers was one of the first nurse scholars to explicitly identify the person (unitary man) as the central phenomena of nursing concern • 1970 – Science of Unity Human Beings (SUHB) • Rogers realized there had to be something to know in nursing that required increased education for its transmission

  5. Purpose • SUHB theory offers a new look at nursing, providing a framework for practice, education and research that moves away from the traditional medical model approach to the delivery of nursing care • To promote human-environment field patterning and the nursing process

  6. Evolution Over Time • When first introduced it was considered radical, and difficult to understand, but now is simply thought to be ahead of its time. • This conceptual framework has greatly influenced all facets of nursing by offering an alternative to traditional approaches of nursing.

  7. Science of Unitary Human Beings • Five basic assumptions underlay Rogers' conceptual framework: 1. Wholeness 2. Openness 3. Unidirectionality 4. Pattern and Organization 5. Sentience and Thought

  8. Science of Unity Human Beings • There are four main topics (metaparadigms) that are addressed by nursing theorists: 1. People 2. Environment 3. Health 4. Nursing

  9. Application to Health • Individually defined • Multicultural dimensions • Influenced by health behaviors • Goal of nursing: health promotion

  10. Application to Nursing • Promote health • Positive optimistic approach • “The study of unitary, irreducible, indivisible human & environmental fields: people and their world.” (Rogers as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007, p.204)

  11. Application to Environment • Continually exchanging energy with the unitary human being • Constant state of change • Helix • Represents environment energy field • Co-existing & interactive with unitary human

  12. Application to Person • Unitary energy system • Whole entity – sum of the parts • Continually exchanging energy with the environment • “These energy fields may be described as open systems, with each person having his/her own unique pattern of energy which constitutes the person’s identity.” (Tettero, Jackson, & Wilson, 1993, p.777)

  13. Examples of Application to: • Nursing Practice • Education • Research

  14. Application to Nursing Practice

  15. Application to Research • Model is abstract & testable in principle • Study humans as individuals & groups • Challenges traditional thinking

  16. Application to Education • “Nursing aims to assist people in achieving their maximum health potential” Martha Rogers – 1970 (as cited by Wright, 2007, p. 65)

  17. Critique of the Theory Clarity Simplicity Generality Empirical precision Derivable consequences

  18. Clarity • Major elements of Rogers’ work: • 5 key definitions • 3 principles of homeodynamics • 6 assumptions • This approach appears simplistic • But is difficult for nurses to understand • Too abstract (McEwen & Wills, 2007, p. 207)

  19. Simplicity • “Ongoing studies and work within the model have served to simplify and clarify some of the concepts and relations. However, when the model is examined in total perspective, some still classify it as complex” • More work is required: use in practice, research and education needed • May determine that the model is simple (Tomey & Alligood, 2006, p. 254)

  20. Generality • “Rogers’ theory is a synthesis of phenomena that are important to nursing. It is an abstract, unified, and highly derived framework and does not define particular hypotheses or theories. Rather it provides a worldview from which nurses may derive theories and hypotheses and propose relationships specific to different situations” (McEwen & Wills, 2007, p.205 ) • Abstract model makes it generalizable to nursing practice

  21. Empirical Precision • Early criticism identified major limitations • Difficult to understand principles • Lack of operational definitions • Inadequate tools for measurement • Deductive in logic • Inherent lack of immediate empirical support • Misunderstood initially

  22. Derivable Consequences • Intends to assist in the understanding of human evolution and human potential • Organized in a manner that place nursing’s identity as a science • Focus is on the human and environmental connection as highly significant • Many have used the theory for research

  23. Summary • Has positively impacted nursing • Widely accepted theory concepts • By offering an emphasis on holism • Mutuality of humans and the environment • Fits with effectiveness of complementary and alternative health practices • Fits with family systems • Allows nursing to study areas that would use only linear, three-dimensional and reductionistic approaches

  24. Being Whole Reflection

  25. References Gunther, M. E. (2006). Unitary Human Beings. In A. Tomey & M. Alligood (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work (pp. 244-266). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier Heggie, J., Schoenmehl, P., Chang, M., & Grieco, C. (1989). Selection and implementation of Dr. Martha Rogers' nursing conceptual model in an acute care setting. Clinical Nurse Specialist: The Journal for Advanced Nursing Practice, 3(3), 143-147. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database. McEwen, N, & Wills, E. (2007). Theoretical basis for nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  26. References n.a. (2009). Martha Rogers. Retrieved from n.a. (2009). Abstract of Martha Rogers nursing theory [Video file]. Retrieved from Remen, R. A. (2005) Being Whole. On care for the journey [CD] Companion Arts, Wisdom of the World Tettero, I., Jackson, S., and Wilson, S. (1993, May). Theory to practice: Developing a Rogerian-based assessment tool. Journal of Advance Nursing, 18(5), 776-782. Retrieved September 18, 2010, doi:10.1046/j.13652648. 1993.18050776.x

  27. References Wright, B. W. (2007, January). The evolution of Rogers’ s Science of Unitary/Human Beings: 21st century reflections. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(1), 64-67. Retrieved September 18,2009, doi: 10.1177/089-4318406296295