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Die Haggadah des Pessachs. “Und wären wir alle auch Weise, Verständige , erfahrene Greise und Kenner der Tora es bliebe dennoch unsere Pflicht , den Auszug aus Aegypten zu erzählen , und jeder , dern den Auszug aus Aegypten ausführlich erzählt , ist rühmenswert ”

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die haggadah des pessachs

Die Haggadah des Pessachs

“Und wärenwiralleauch Weise, Verständige, erfahreneGreise und Kenner der ToraesbliebedennochunserePflicht, den AuszugausAegyptenzuerzählen, und jeder, dern den AuszugausAegyptenausführlicherzählt, istrühmenswert”

Wintersemester 2011

Daniel Stein Kokin

rabbinic periodization
Rabbinic Periodization

1. Tannaim/תנאים (to 200 AD) = Repeaters:

Follow the Five “Pairs”

Mishna (ca. 200), Tosefta (post Mishna)

2. Amoraim/אמוראים (200-500) = Speakers:

Talmuds (Babylonian and Jerusalem)

3. Savoraim/סבוראים (6th Century) = Explainers/Expositors (Babl.)

supplement and edit Babylonian Talmud

[also known as Stammaim/סתמאים = unattributed, unnamed

4. Geonim/גאונים (7th Century on) = Pride/Splendor

academy heads in Babylonia, "responsa literature"

tannaitic literature
Tannaitic Literature
  • Mishna (משנה): “Repetition”
  • Tosefta (תוספתא): “Addition” or “Supplement”

the Mishna’s “Recycle bin”

4X bigger than the Mishna

collects “baraitot”

halakha vs aggada
Halakha vs. Aggada

Halakha: legal material

From root: halakh הלך (to go)

Aggada: non-legal, i.e. stories, interpretation

From root: haged היגיד (to say, tell)

midrasch
Midrasch (מדרש)

From root Darash (דרש) = seek, investigate

Midrasch (מדרש) = Forschung, Studium, bzw. Auslegung

Darshan (דרשן) = Schriftausleger, Prediger

Jesaja 34,16:

imBuchGottesnachforschen (דִּרְשׁוּ מֵעַל-סֵפֶר יְהוָה, )

2 Chronik 24,27:

MidraschzumBuch der Könige (עַל-מִדְרַשׁ סֵפֶר הַמְּלָכִים)

1) Ben Bag Bag sagt: “Wende die [Tora] hin und wendesie her, dennallesist in ihr…” (mAvot 5,22)

2) It is taught in the school of R. Ishmael: “Behold, my word is like fire, declares the Lord, and like a hammer that shatters rock” (Jer. 23,29). As this hammer produces many sparks, so a single verse has many meanings. (bSanhedrin 34a)

3) There are seventy faces to the Torah: Turn it around and around, for everything is in it. (Numbers Rabba 13:15)

midrasch in der bibel
Midrasch in der Bibel (מדרש)

Genesis 25,22

“Und die Kinder stießen sich miteinander in ihrem (Rebekah) Leibe. Da

sprach sie: Da mir's also sollte gehen, warum bin ich schwanger

geworden? und sie ging hin, den HERRN zu fragen.”

וַיִּתְרֹצְצוּ הַבָּנִים, בְּקִרְבָּהּ, וַתֹּאמֶר אִם-כֵּן, לָמָּה זֶּה אָנֹכִי; וַתֵּלֶךְ, לִדְרֹשׁ אֶת-יְהוָה.

Esra 7,10:

Denn Esra schickte sein Herz, zu suchen das Gesetz des HERRN und

zu tun, und zu lehren in Israel Gebote und Rechte.

כִּי עֶזְרָא הֵכִין לְבָבוֹ, לִדְרֹשׁ אֶת-תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְלַעֲשֹׂת, וּלְלַמֵּד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט. 

Jesaja 34,16:

“im Buch Gottes nachforschen” (דִּרְשׁוּ מֵעַל-סֵפֶר יְהוָה)

2 Chronik 24,27:

“Midrasch zum Buch der Könige“ (עַל-מִדְרַשׁ סֵפֶר הַמְּלָכִים)

die anf nge der midrasch
Die Anfänge der Midrasch
  • Inter-biblical exegesis as early Midrasch (Michael Fishbane)
  • Apocryphal, Pseudepigraphic, and Targumic Literature as Midrasch
  • „Re-written Bible“ as Midrasch
halakhic midrasch
HalakhicMidrasch

Already perhaps in Tannaitic period, midrashic works written to correspond with books of Pentateuch

For example:

  • Nothing on Genesis
  • Exodus = Mekhilta de Rabbi Ishmael/R. Shimon b. Yohai
  • Leviticus = Sifra
  • Numeri = SifreiBamidbar
  • Deut = SifreiDevarim
slide9
AusSigfriedStein, "The Influence of of Symposia Literature on the Literary Form of the PesahHaggadah"

“What then gave the impetus to the extension from the unspecified Biblical ordinances to the elaborate ritual of the Haggadah as it now stands before us?” (p. 15)

--expansion of liturgy post-Temple

--increase in midrashic exegesis

--harmonization of rabbinic traditions

--eschatological expectations

--emphasis on antiquity of Jewish people

--Symposia Literature?

hallel
Hallel (הלל)

Normallerweisefängt so an:

“Gelobtseist du, Ewiger, unserGott, König der Welt, der du unsgeheiligtdurchdeineGebote und unsbefohlen hast, das Hallelzulesen.”

Psalm 113:

Hallelujah! Preiset, Knechte des Ewigen, preiset den Namen des Ewigen…Errichtet auf ausdemStaube den Armen

Psalm 114:

Als Israel ausÄgyptenzog…

Psalm 115-118

Followed by concluding rabbinic composition

Then, instead of concluding blessing, with

Psalm 136 (das sogennanteGroßeHallel)

slide12
AusSigfried Stein,  "The Influence of of Symposia Literature on the Literary Form of the PesahHaggadah"