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The Cooperative Principle. 現代英語学 2011 年 5 月 27 日. 前提と意味論的含意. My sister is working at an ice cream shop. → I have a sister. She has arrived in Tokyo.   → She is in Tokyo. NEGATION TEST. H. Sacks (1992) Lectures on Conversation . Blackwell. A: I have a fourteen year old son.

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the cooperative principle

The Cooperative Principle



  • My sister is working at an ice cream shop.

→ I have a sister.

  • She has arrived in Tokyo.

  → She is in Tokyo.


h sacks 1992 lectures on conversation blackwell
H. Sacks (1992) Lectures on Conversation. Blackwell.
  • A: I have a fourteen year old son.

B: Well, that’s all right.

A: I also have a dog.

B: Oh, I’m sorry.

conversational implicature
conversational implicature(会話の含意)
  • A: Can you tell me the time?

B: Well, the milkman has come.

Levinson 1983.Pragmatics. Cambridge UP.

  • A: Do you have the ability to tell me the time?
  • B: [語用論的に解釈される不変化詞] the milkman came at some time prior to the time of speaking.
  • A: Do you have the ability to tell me the time of the present moment, as standardly indicated on a watch,and if so please do so tell me.
  • B: No I don‘t know the exact time ofthe present moment, but I can provide some information from which you may be able to deduce the approximate time, namely the milkman has come.
  • グライス(Paul Grice)
  • Grice, Paul. 1975, "Logic and Conversation." In Peter Cole & Jerry Morgan, eds. Syntax and Semantics, Vol 3: Speech Acts. Academic Press. pp. 41­-58. Steven Davis, 1991. Pragmatics: A Reader. Oxford University Press.に再録
  • いわないことまでなぜ伝わるのか
  • 間接的なメッセージがなぜ伝わるのか
  • 間接的な解釈のプロセスは
  • 一般的含意

(Generalized implicature)

  • 意図的な含意の利用

(Particularized implicature, Flouting)

generalized implicature
Generalized implicature
  • John has two PhDs.

??John has two PhDs but I don't believe this.

  • Nigel has fourteen children.
  • A: How did Harry fare in court the other day?

B: Oh he got a fine.

  • Alfred went to the store and bought some whisky.
flouting quality
FLOUTING (Quality)
  • A: Teheran's in Turkey isn't it, teacher?

B: And London's in Armenia I suppose.

  • Queen Victoria was made of iron.
  • A: What if the USSR blockades the Gulf and all the oil?

B: Oh come now, Britain rules the seas!

flouting quantity
FLOUTING (Quantity)
  • If he does it, he does it.
  • Either John will come or he won't.
flouting relation
FLOUTING (Relation)
  • A: I do think Mrs Jenkins is an old windbag, don't you?

B: Huh, lovely weather for March, isn't it?

flouting manner
FLOUTING (manner)
  • A: Let's get the kids something.

B: Okay, but I veto I­C­E C­R­E­A­M­S.

  • Miss Singer sang an aria from Rigoletto.

Miss Singer produced a series of sounds corresponding closely to the score of an aria from Rigoletto.