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Romanian Perspective. by Georgiana Ghitulete. From Romania. “in that moment I thought that at least in that day his mother might not beat him when they arrive home.” From a personal email, 4 th October 2003. 2. From Romania.

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romanian perspective

Romanian Perspective

by Georgiana Ghitulete

from romania
From Romania

“in that moment I thought that at least in that day his mother might not beat him when they arrive home.”

From a personal email, 4th October 2003



From Romania

  • She went to a psychologist because she always gets ink on her hands.
  • She recognizes by herself that she confuses words. She is getting one palm on the front of the head and says: "How stupid I was!"
  • She says "When I am copying from the board, I am a catastrophe!".
  • She asked me to take a girl and not a boy to test because her colleagues got upset with her.
  • She considers herself different from the "average" girls.
  • She said that she remembers pictures in detail.

Personal email, 4th October 2003


  • Year of entry to EU: none
  • Political system: Parlamentary Republic
  • Capital city: Bucharest
  • Total area: 238,391 kmp
  • Population: 21,680,970
  • Population density: 90,9 people/kmp
  • Currency: leu
  • Minimum salary per month: 63 euros
  • National Language: Romanian
  • Other languages used: Hungarian (6.7%), Rromany (1%)
  • 1,517,000 graduated students of higher education
  • 509,000 illiterates ( of 10 years old and more)
romanian educational system
Romanian Educational System
  • Kindergarten: 3-6 years old
  • Primary school: 7-11 years old
  • Secondary school: 11-15 years old
  • High school/vocational school:15-19 years old
  • University - short term (collegies) – 3 years

- long term – 4-6 years

- master – 1-1/2 years

how many people learn
How many people learn?

Higher education


School Population


High and secondary education




From National Statistics - 2002

higher education in romania
Higher Education in Romania

State institutions of higher education:

56 universities and 70 collegies.

Private institutions of higher education:

68 universities

Major learning cities:

Bucharest (130,969 university students),

Cluj, Iasi, Timisoara

no standard definition
No standard definition!
  • Person with handicap – the person who, due to some sensorial, physic or mental deficiencies, cannot totally/partially or temporary/permanent integrate through own abilities into social and professional life and needs for a special support.

(The Law 53/1992 Regarding The Special Protection of Handicapped People)

  • Dyslexia – the difficulty of reading caused by deficiencies of auditory, visual or kinaesthesic perception.
  • Dysgraphia – the difficulty of writing.
  • Specialists use the “dyslexo-dysgraphia” term instead of “dyslexia”, but most of the people don’t know what means either of them.
  • Dyslexo-dysgraphia – the difficulty in phonetic integration, meaning the insufficient auditory/visual discrimination of sounds in heard word/letters in read word causing misspelling. (Paunescu C., 1984)
who assesses
Who Assesses?
  • Those who have taken a Psychology degree and then taken further special needs educational courses –
    • Psychologists,
    • Speech Therapists,
    • Councillors,
    • Special Needs Teachers
  • But none of them are specialised in Dyslexia!!
  • No training available for tutors to ensure dyslexia friendly delivery!!
what tools are used to identify those with dyslexia
What tools are used to identify those with dyslexia?
  • International tests – adapted for Romanian use:
    • Borel-Maisonny Test – alphabet naming, consonant discrimination etc.
  • Romanian tests:
    • Oral Language e.g. Ursula Schiopu & M. Garboveanu – comprehension and association of words within stories.
    • Lexic & Graphic e.g. Natalia Gheorghita et al – phoneme/grapheme, picture/word, written/auditory correspondence etc.

No specific test for identifying dyslexia!

It is not known the usage of these tests to adults.

issues about standardisation
Issues about standardisation
  • There are no Romanian standardised reading tests – although the tests undertaken show poor reading age against the norm within the school population these tests are only based on specialists’ local knowledge – There are no standardised national assessments
  • No computerised testing, no statistical studies – prevalence of dyslexia not known
  • Very few professionals remain in the field of dyslexia as it is not well paid, so there is very little research
  • Lack of awareness of dyslexia in Romania!
where can i get help as a dyslexic
Where can I get help as a Dyslexic?
  • There are no specialist institutions or schools for children with dyslexia but there are institutions for all special needs and those with dyslexia are assessed at these places and then go to a special school for all disabilities – then grouped by disability or stay in mainstream schools.
  • Adults attend a hospital with a specialist centre for assessment – very few of these are available.
  • There is no specific funding for dyslexia at kindergarten or school age (5 – 7 – 16 years) under the Minister of Education
  • Public schools have specialist teachers and speech and language therapists who work with all special needs children including those with dyslexia – computer technology in one or two classes.
  • Special schools have funding but it is designed for general disability needs – only administrators have computers!
  • Vocational schools – 15-18yrs only specialist tuition but no assistive technology support
  • Adults attend speech therapy clinics in hospitals paid for under the Ministry of Health – there is no research as to how adults and university students cope – technology is home based - no financial support.
associations and legislation
Associations and Legislation
  • Romanian Speech and Language Assoc.
  • The “Dyslexia Organisation” from Romania (O.D.R.) is being established who will be looking into dyslexia, assessment, technology, internet and face to face support for all ages.
  • Romanian signed up to Salamanca agreement – assess the
  • individuals abilities and weaknesses…..but
    • Romania Disability Discrimination laws only deal with general
    • disabilities without looking into the specific nature of dyslexia.
technology and support
Technology and support
  • Thanks to Minerva Project, there are now available in Romanian:
    • Mindfull
    • Text to speech
  • No special place for assistive technology, it is home based!
  • Tape recorder: 50 euros
  • Computer: 700-800 euros
issues about support
Issues about support
  • Tape recorders are allowed.
  • Handouts are available (from teacher or colleagues, but usually there are fees for acquiring them).
  • is available.
barriers to dyslexics at university
Barriers to dyslexics at university
  • Lack of understanding of their own difficulties and by others, due to the lack of awareness of dyslexia in Romania
  • Shame
  • Entrance exams
  • Written exams
  • No arrangements for dyslexics studying
  • No financial support
  • Percentage of dyslexics at university: no data.