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  1. INSY 3021 Time Study Auburn UniversitySpring 2005

  2. Establishment of Time Standards • Estimates • Historical records • Standards

  3. Estimates • Original method • Unfair due to variability among estimators • Looking at a job and judging the amount of the time needed

  4. Historical Records • Based on the record of previously performed similar jobs • Measures time over entire job, with no consideration of delays • Better than estimates (or lack of a standard)

  5. Time Study • Develops a time standard for performing a task • Measures work content, allows for fatigue, personal and unavoidable delays • Increases the efficiency of the equipment and personnel

  6. “A Fair Days Work” • The amount of work that can be produced by a qualified employee when working at a normal pace and effectively utilizing their time where work is not restricted by process limitations

  7. Responsibility • Notification • Proper lubricants, materials, feeds & speeds, knowledge of procedure • Normal pace, no introduction of new movements • Union support

  8. Equipment • Stopwatch • Decimal minute watch – 100 divisions (.01 minute) • Provides continuousorsnapback timing • Electronic watch – accuracy of .001 second (600 times more accurate) • Provides bothcontinuousand snapback timing

  9. Equipment (con’t) • Computer-Assisted electronic stopwatches • Video cameras • Time study board • Time study forms (TP) • Training equipment

  10. Time Study Elements • Watch operator for several cycles • Break task down into fine elements • Look for natural breakpoints using both sight and sound • Record elements in proper sequence • Do not repeat identical elements descriptions, just reference the previous #

  11. Timing • Record only what is necessary to rebuild later (TP) • Snapback: Watch is reset after each breakpoint of an element • Continuous: Watch is allowed to run for the entire job being evaluated

  12. Snapback Method • No clerical time needed to subtract from the previous observations as in continuous (TP) • Read and record Observed Time (OT) directly • Short element times are difficult to time • Possible cycle time lost during the snapback (N/A to electronic watch)

  13. Continuous Method • Continuous: Watch is allowed to run for the entire job being evaluated • Presents a complete record for the entire observation period • All delays and foreign elements are recorded • Clerical work required

  14. Foreign Elements • Things that are external to the process that delay the work moving forward • Include: Supervisor interruptions, power losses, defective parts, leaving workstation, tool breakage, etc… • Occurring during an element, write A, B, C, etc…In the NT block (TP)

  15. Missed Breakpoints • Immediately mark an “M” in the W column • If operator omits an element, draw a dash (-) through the applicable space in the W column

  16. Number of Cycles to Record • Tabulated data (TP) • Statistical methods

  17. Ratings • Normalize the readings to the “average operator” • Can be for the entire element or individual cycles • NT=OT x R/100

  18. Allowances • Typically about 15% • Personal interruptions • Fatigue • Unavoidable delay • Standard Time (ST) = NT (1 + allowance)

  19. Study Calculations • Start time, Finish time, Elapsed time, Time elapsed before study (TEBS), Time elapsed after study (TEAS), Total check time, Effective time, Ineffective time, Unaccounted time, Recording error (should not exceed ~ 2%)

  20. Questions & Comments