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I- User Environment. Aviation meteorology, session 2. ENM – Sep 2008 Franck PITHOIS ENM/PAM. I- User Environment. International Context Aircraft User Organization Measurement Units Altimetry Basics. Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment. 2. 1. International Context.

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I user environment

I- User Environment

Aviation meteorology, session 2

ENM – Sep 2008

Franck PITHOIS ENM/PAM


I user environment1
I- User Environment

  • International Context

  • Aircraft

  • User Organization

  • Measurement Units

  • Altimetry Basics

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment

2


1 international context
1. International Context

  • International Civil Aviation Organization

  • Dec. 7, 1944: Chicago Conference (52 states)

  • Wrote a convention covering international civil aviation

  • Founded ICAO (190 member states in 2008)

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


Icao s purposes
ICAO's purposes

  • Setting out the principles and techniques of international air navigation

  • Promoting and planning the development of safe, reliable, efficient and cost effective air transport.

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


2 aircraft
2. Aircraft

Engine cowling

Leading edge

Wing

Wing tip

Aileron

Flaps

Trailing edge

Elevator

Trim tab

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


Aerodynamic forces
Aerodynamic forces

Lift

Thrust

Drag

Relative airflow

Weight

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


Relative airflow vr
Relative airflow: VR

Leading edge

Upper surface: underpressure

VR

Lower surface: overpressure

Trailing edge

Link: http://www.av8n.com/how/htm/airfoils.html, for further explanations

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


Dynamic study of the forces in presence
Dynamic study of the forces in presence

R : Aerodynamic resultant

Fz

P = Weight

T = Thrust (engine)

Vr

Fx

T

 : Density of air

S : Reference surface

Vr : Aircraft/Air speed

Cx : Coefficient of drag

Cz : Coefficient of lift

P

Lift:

Drag:

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


Various aircraft

http://www.mpa80.be/mpa/mpaXpress_fichiers/pigeon.jpg

http://www.preciflight.com/FR/images/ROBIN_120.jpg

http://www.chateau-chassignol.com/montgolfiere/5.jpg

http://www.altibulle.com/portail/images/ulm.gif

Various aircraft

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


3 user organization
3. User Organization

  • Airspace structure (introduction)

  • Different categories of users

  • Two types of flight rules: IFR/VFR

  • Flight safety

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


A airspace structure uir fir
a- Airspace structure: UIR/FIR

http://www.ecacnav.com/images/RVSM%20October%202007%20copy.jpg

In-flight information

In France:

1 UIR

5 FIR

Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


Vertical structure
Vertical structure

UIR

Infinity

FL660

LTA

LTA

FL195

TMA

FL115

FIR

Sol

  • There are two categories of controlled airspace:

    • Control area: CTR

      • – CTR

  • Control region: CTA

    • – TMA, AWY, LTA & UTA

  • U

    I

    R

    UTA

    F

    I

    R

    AWY

    CTR

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Airspace classifications
    Airspace classifications

    • - Controlled airspace (classes A, B, C, D & E)

    • Uncontrolled airspace (class F & G)

    • Regulated airspace (marked as R)

    • Dangerous airspace (marked as D)

    • Prohibited airspace (marked as P)

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Examples
    Examples

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    B different categories of users
    b. Different categories of users

    What flies (in France)

    • General aviation traffic

    • Military aviation traffic

      • Operational military aviation traffic

      • Flight tests and aircraft acceptance

        Airport operations (in France)

    • Airport services: Air navigation…

    • Airport operators: Chambers of Commerce & Industry, companies…

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    General aviation traffic
    General Aviation Traffic

    • Commercial aviation

    • Government and military aviation

    • Business and recreational aviation

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Commercial aviation
    Commercial aviation

    Flights operated by international, domestic and regional airlines carrying passengers and cargo.

    Performance by type of propulsion:

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Government and military aviation
    Government and military aviation

    • Presidential or ministerial flights

    • Customs service

    • Civil protection

    • SFACT (Aeronautical training and technical inspection service)

    • Carrying passengers and cargo

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Business and recreational aviation
    Business and recreational aviation

    Private flights: public transport other than scheduled flights and express cargo

    Recreational aviation: motorized (airplanes + helicopters), gliders, free flight, ULM, skydiving and ballooning.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    C two types of flight rules ifr vfr
    c. Two types of flight rules: IFR/VFR

    Defined in line with IMC/VMC weather conditions

    IFR: Instrument Flight Rules

    VFR: Visual Flight Rules

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    I user environment
    IFR

    • Suitably equipped aircraft

    • Qualified crew (professional)

    • Aircraft guidance using radio navigation equipment

    • Procedures to follow (air traffic control)

    • Radio communication equipment fitted

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    I user environment
    IFR

    • Commercial aviation type flights, implying:

    • Safety and reliability

    • Different weather conditions during different phases of the flight: take off, cruising, landing

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    I user environment
    VFR

    • Less sophisticated aircraft equipment

    • Generally a relatively less qualified crew (amateur)

    • More restrictive visibility and ceiling conditions

    • Subject to weather conditions

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Different types of vfr
    Different types of VFR

    • "Regular" VFR

    • Special VFR: excluding VMC conditions, low altitude

    • Night VFR: specific qualifications

    • VFR on TOP: flight above the clouds

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    D flight safety international statistics
    d. Flight safety: International statistics

    Since 1999, the ICAO only keeps records on accidents involving aircraft with a certified maximum take off weight in excess of 2,250 kg

    The total of death is quite egal despite a bigger trafic every year

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Passenger fatalities on scheduled flights
    Passenger fatalities on scheduled flights

    Excluding accidents due to illicit intervention

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Aircraft categories involved in accidents
    Aircraft categories involved in accidents

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Occurrences
    Occurrences

    Source : DGAC

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    4 measurement units
    4. Measurement Units

    Horizontal distances: Nautical Mile (NM = 1852 m)

    Horizontal speeds: Knots (KT)

    Vertical distances: Feet (FT=0.3048 m)

    Standard Flight Levels: 850 (FL050), 700 (FL100), 500 (FL180), 300 (FL300), 250 (FL340), 200 (FL390).

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    5 altimetry basics
    5. Altimetry basics

    • Principle

    • A Reminder on Altitudes

    • ICAO standard atmosphere

    • Altimeter

    • Altimeter settings

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    A principle
    a. Principle

    • Defining the altitude-pressure relationship in the vertical distance or elevation sense

    • Resolving problems relating to determining vertical distances from pressure measurements.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    B reminder altitudes
    b. Reminder: Altitudes

    height

    runway

    Height: The vertical distance between any point or level taken in relation to a reference point.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    B reminder altitudes1
    b. Reminder: Altitudes

    altitude

    sea

    runway

    Altitude: The vertical distance between any point or level Above Mean Sea Level (AMSL)

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    C icao standard atmosphere 1 4
    c. ICAO standard atmosphere (1/4)

    • A fictitious atmosphere defined up to an altitude of 32 km:

    • Air is a perfect gas with an invariable chemical composition

    • Air is dry (Tv= T)

    • Gravity acceleration is constant: g= 9.80665m/s²

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    C icao standard atmosphere 2 4
    c.ICAOstandardatmosphere(2/4)

    • - A vertical temperature gradient that is constant for each of the following intervals:

      • 0 to 11 km: gradient of T = -0.65°C/100 m or 2°C /1000 ft

      • 11 to 20 km: gradient of T= 0° (T = - 56.5°C)

      • 20 to 32 km: gradient of T = 1°C/1000 m

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    C icao standard atmosphere 3 4
    c.ICAOstandardatmosphere(3/4)

    • Pressure at sea level is 1013.25 hPa

    • Temperature at sea level is 15°C or 288°k

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    C icao standard atmosphere 4 4
    c.ICAOstandardatmosphere(4/4)

    Graphic representations

    Z= f(T)

    Z= f(P)

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    D altimeter operation
    d. Altimeter: Operation

    The instrument itself comprises aneroid capsules that are sensitive to pressure variations.

    The measured pressure level is directly translated into a vertical distance in line with the standard atmospheric rule.

    Graduated in feet, 1 ft = 0.3048 m

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    D altimeter description
    d. Altimeter: Description

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    E altimeter settings why they were created
    e. Altimeter settings: Why they were created

    1 Runway tour

    2 Local flight

    3 Moving

    D

    A

    Height

    Altitude

    Reference altitude

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    E altimeter settings
    e. Altimeter settings

    • QFE

    • QNH

    • 1013

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    I user environment
    QFE

    Equivalent atmospheric pressure at the aerodrome's official altitude.

    For a pilot this is the setting pressure that corresponds to a ZERO indication on their altimeter when their wheels touch down.

    The setting reference is the runway.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Calculating qfe
    Calculating QFE

    The pressure measured by the barometer brought back to the official runway altitude thanks to an altitude correction.

    QFE = P(Station reference altitude) + dP

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Using qfe
    Using QFE

    During takeoff or landing phases for aerodromes located above 600 meters.

    The altimeter provides the height in relation to the runway.

    It is used less and less.

    Advantage: when the plane touches the runway, the altimeter indicates ZERO.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    I user environment
    QNH

    Station pressure returned to sea level by applying a standard correction.For pilots, this setting gives them the flight or runway altitude in relation to sea level.In a standard atmosphere, the setting reference for QNH is the sea.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Calculating qnh
    Calculating QNH

    QNH= P(station reference altitude)+dP’

    Correction calculated just like QFEin standard atmosphere

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Using qnh
    Using QNH

    • More and more often used for it offers many advantages:

      • Routes through mountain ranges.

      • Takeoff and landing from aerodromes.

      • Precise position at the auto-information stage.

      • A good approximation of the plane's true altitude.

      • Used under the transition altitude.

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Setting 1013
    Setting 1013

    Used to separate aircraft at their cruising altitude.

    Isobar surfaces

    Fl 65

    Fl 60

    Fl 55

    1013

    Fl 50

    0 ft

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Setting to use uncontroled airspace

    FL 70

    FL 60

    FL 50

    1013 settings, flight level indications

    FL 45

    3000 ft AGL

    FL 40

    FL 35

    FL 30

    QNH (or QFE) settings

    3000 ft AMSL

    Setting to use: Uncontroled airspace

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Setting to use controlled airspace
    Setting to use: Controlled airspace

    FL 90

    FL 80

    1013 settings, flight level indications

    FL 70

    FL 60

    Transition zone

    FL 50

    QNH settings, ‘Z’ indications

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment


    Exercise
    Exercise

    • What is the lowest flight level that can be chosen to overfly an obstacle at an elevation of 3800 ft?

    • When QNH is:

    • 1033 hPa

    • 993 hPa

    • 1013 hPa

    • Remember to add a safety margin of 500 ft!

    • 1 hPa = 28 ft

    Aviation course blended learning- I/ User Environment