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AnNajah National University Civil Engineering Department. Environment Engineering I. Solid Waste Management. Dr. Amal Hudhud. perspective. Solid waste describe things we through away According to USA EPA

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environment engineering i

AnNajah National University

Civil Engineering Department

Environment Engineering I

Solid Waste Management

Dr. Amal Hudhud


Solid waste describe things we through away

According to USA EPA

Solid Waste : include any discarded item thing destined for reuse, recycle or reclamation, sludge, hazardous waste exclude radioactive waste

This chapter concern with Solid Waste generated from residential and commercial sources

characteristic of solid waste
Characteristic of solid waste
  • The term Refuse or Solid Waste is classified according to :
    • Point of origin (domestic, agriculture, industrial
    • Natural of material (organic, inorganic, putrescible ….
  • The classification of SW is used for choosing the treatment, collection, recycling and disposal options
  • Putrescible : animal and vegetable waste resulting from handling, cooking, preparing, and serving of food
solid waste collection
Solid waste collection
  • Who make the collection?
    • City employees
    • Private firms (contract with city government- private residents)
  • Frequency of collection
    • Amount of waste
    • Climate
    • Cost
    • Public request

2- Method of collecting recyclable Materials

  • curbside collections ( one bins or number of bins)
  • Drop off centers

4-improving the Market for recyclables: factors effect market and price

  • Economic condition
  • Overall demand
  • Transportation cost
  • Quality of recovered material
  • Export market
  • Compost : decomposition of organic materials such as leaves, grass and food by microorganism) crumbly, earthy smell, soil like material). Material to be composted should contain both Nitrogen and carbon sources (N:C, 1:30 to achieve optimum microorganism growth )
  • The composting process

involves four main components

: organic matter, moisture,

oxygen, and bacteria

source reduction
Source reduction
  • prevent formation of waste.
  • Design manufacture, purchase and use material in way that minimize the amount of toxicity of the waste we generate.
  • Reduce waste – reduce cost of recycling, landfill, composting
  • Conserve natural resources, reduce pollution
waste reduction and process modification
Waste reduction and Process Modification:
  • Redesigning of product and packing to reduce the quantity of materials generated (reduction of mass)
  • Nontoxic material can be substituted for other toxic ones
  • Using Email
reuse of product
Reuse of product
  • Reusing when possible:-


    • Using durable coffee mugs rather than disposal cups
    • Reusing boxes for other purposes
    • Purchase refillable pens
    • etc
education and legislation
Education and legislation
  • Should education of people about benefits of recycling and reusing products and minimizing the waste or enforcing by legislation
combustion 1
Combustion (1)

To reduce waste volume, local governments or private operators can implement a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration

Burning waste at extremely high temperatures also destroys chemical compounds and disease-causing bacteria.

sanitary landfill 2
sanitary landfill (2)

Land disposal site employing an engineered method of disposing of SW on a land in a manner that minimizing environmental hazards by spreading solid waste to the smallest practical volume, applying and compacting cover material at the end of each day

sanitary landfill
sanitary landfill

Site selection

Restricted location such as wetland flood plain, seismic impact areas

Public opposition

Proximity to roadways and bridge

Location of GW table

Soil condition and topography

Availability of cover material

sanitary landfill1
Sanitary landfill


Area method the most common method in operation SLF it uses three step: spreading the waste, compacting and covering with soil

The waste is spread in 0.4 -0.6 m layer and compacted

sanitary landfill2
Sanitary landfill


Liquid that passes through the landfill, extract dissolved and suspended matter from waste material

Liquid contains: decomposition of waste, rainfall, surface drainage and Groundwater

sanitary landfill4
Sanitary landfill

When the landfill reach its field capacity (the quantity of water held against gravity)leachate begin to flow

Amount of leachate is determined by Darcy law

sanitary landfill5
Sanitary landfill

Control of leachate: landfill must be lined in a specific manner to meet maximum contaminate level for G.W

Specific liner include synthetics membrane 0.76 mm thick (HDPE, PVC….)

sanitary landfill7
Sanitary landfill

Leachate treatment

New landfill high concentration of Ammonia, organic chemical

Old landfill high concentration of salts

Treatment options: 1) directly to WWTP

2) pretreatment on site (flocculation-

sedimentation –filtration)

3) treatment on site Activated sludge

and Reverse Osmosis (RO)

sanitary landfill8
Sanitary landfill

Methane and other gases production: Emitted from a landfill as a result of microbial decomposition (CO2 and CH4)

sanitary landfill9
Sanitary landfill

Landfill Design

Site Preparation, building, monitoring wells, size, liners, leachate collection system, final cover, gas collection.

Where = volume of landfill (in m3)

P = population

E = ratio of cover (soil) to compacted fill =

= volume of solid waste ( in m3)

= volume of cover ( in m3)

C = average mass of solid waste collected per capita ( in Kg. person -1)

Dc= density of compacted fill (in Kg. m-3)

sanitary landfill10
Sanitary landfill

Landfill closure

Final cover to be applied in order to prevent moisture from entering the closed landfill