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Teaching and learning Achieving quality for all. Name: Event: Location, date 2014. Key messages. By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals. There is a global learning crisis that is hitting the disadvantaged hardest.

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teaching and learning achieving quality for all

Teaching and learningAchieving quality for all

Name:

Event:

Location, date 2014

slide2

Key messages

  • By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals.
  • There is a global learning crisis that is hitting the disadvantaged hardest.
  • Good quality education can only be achieved with good quality teachers.
  • Global education goals after 2015 must track progress of the marginalized.
  • Post-2015 goals must include specific targets to finance education.
slide3

EFA goals will not be reached by 2015

Goal 1:Early childhood care and education

  • 1 in 4 children under 5 suffer from stunting, because of malnutrition.
  • 50% of young children have access to pre-primary education, but only 17% in low income countries.
  • Goal 2: Universal primary education
  • 57 million childrenare out of school, half of whom live in conflict-affected countries.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, only 23% of poor, rural girls complete primary education.
slide4

EFA goals will not be reached by 2015

Goal 3: Youth and adult skills

  • 69 million adolescents are out of school.
  • In low income countries, only 37% of adolescents complete lower secondary education, and only 14% of the poorest.
slide5

The number of adolescents out of school declined slowly

120

Out

-

of

-

Out-of-school children

107

100

Out-of-schooladolescents

101

-

o

-

81

80

73

Millions

69

57

60

40

31

South and West Asia

40

20

22

Sub-SaharanAfrica

22

0

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

Source: UIS database.

slide6

EFA goals will not be reached by 2015

Goal 4:Adult literacy

  • 774 million adults are illiterate, a decline of just 1% since 2000.
  • Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women.
  • Goal 5: Gender parity and equality

There are fewer than 9 girls for every 10 boys:

  • in 17 countries at primary level
  • in 30 countries at secondary level.
slide7

Percentage of countries projected to reach a benchmark for five EFA goals by 2015

By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals

Source: Bruneforth (2013).

fall in aid threatens education in the poorest countries
Fall in aid threatens education in the poorest countries

There is a financing gap of $26 billion per year

Yet, aid to basic education fell by 6% between 2010 and 2011

8

6

4

6.2

6.2

5.8

5.2

5.1

4.6

4.2

2

3.6

3.3

Constant 2011 US$ billions

3.0

0

Only US$1.9 billion of basic education aid was allocated to low income countries in 2011.

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Source: OECD-DAC (2013)

slide10

Targets must be set so no one is left behind due to lack of resources

After 2015, financing targets should be set for countries to allocate:

  • at least 6% of GNP on education; only 41 had reached this level by 2011
  • at least 20% of their budget on education; only 25 had reached this level by 2011

Financing targets should also apply to aid donors so that all funders are held to account for their promises.

many children in the poorest countries are not learning the basics
Many children in the poorest countries are not learning the basics

Reached grade 4 and learned the basics

slide15

Poorer children learn less

Children completing primary school and achieving minimum learning standards in mathematics, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America

100

80

Children of primary school age (%)

60

Rich

40

Poor

20

0

Panama

Burkina Faso

Cameroon

Burundi

Dominican Rep.

Côte d'Ivoire

Zimbabwe

U. R. Tanzania

Nicaragua

Uganda

El Salvador

Costa Rica

Mauritania

Madagascar

Mozambique

Swaziland

Guatemala

Ecuador

Colombia

Paraguay

Argentina

Lesotho

Congo

Zambia

Namibia

Kenya

Uruguay

Chile

Brazil

Senegal

Malawi

Peru

Chad

Benin

Central and West Africa

Latin America

Southern and Eastern Africa

poor quality education leaves a legacy of illiteracy
Poor quality education leaves a legacy of illiteracy

One-quarter of those aged 15 to 24 in poor countries are unable to read a single sentence.

slide18

Strategy 1: Recruit the best candidates

  • 1.6 million additional teachers are needed to achieve universal primary education by 2015

6

Total primary teacher recruitment needed (millions)

Sub-

-

5

Saharan

Additional teachers

1.6 million

Africa

All

60%

other

  • On current trends, 29 countries will not even have filled their primary school teacher gap by 2030
  • 5.1 million additional teachers will be needed to achieve universal lower secondary education by 2030

4

3

0.7

Replacement for attrition

3.7 million

2

1

0

2011-2015

Source: UIS (2013)

slide19

POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS:

Policy-makers must attract the best candidates to teaching

  • All trainees need, at a minimum, to have completed secondary education with good grades.
  • There should be a good balance of male to female teachers.
  • Teachers from a diverse range of backgrounds need to be attracted to the profession.
slide20

Strategy 2: Train all teachers well

In one out of three countries, less than three-quarters of teachers are trained to national standards

160

Pupil/trained teacher ratio

140

Pupil/teacher ratio

120

Pupils per teacher

100

80

60

40

20

0

Solomon Is.

Chad

Bangladesh

Ethiopia

Mozambique

Sierra Leone

Benin

Equat. Guinea

Guinea

C. A. R.

Senegal

Ghana

Guinea-Bissau

Kyrgyzstan

S.Tome/Principe

Togo

Nicaragua

Comoros

Cameroon

Lesotho

Nigeria

Mali

Liberia

Sudan (pre-secession)

Barbados

Guyana

Dominica

Belize

Qatar

Source: UIS database.

policy recommendations
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Policy-makers must provide good quality pre-service and ongoing teacher education

  • Teachers must have good subject knowledge.
  • Teachers must be equipped to meet the needs of those from disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • Teachers need training in the use of assessment tools to detect and address learning difficulties early.
  • Teacher trainees should have classroom experience and new teachers need support of mentors.
  • Training must not stop once teachers are in the classroom.
  • Teacher educators need training too.
strategy 3 allocate teachers to reach the disadvantaged
Strategy 3: Allocate teachers to reach the disadvantaged

The unequal allocation of teachers is affected by four main factors

  • Urban bias
  • Ethnicity and language
  • Gender
  • Subjects
policy recommendations1
POLICYRECOMMENDATIONS

Policy-makers must allocate the best teachers where they are most needed

  • Teachers should be provided with incentives to work in remote areas
  • Local recruitment of teachers helps to ensure sufficient teachers are working in difficult areas
strategy 4 provide incentives to retain teachers
Strategy4: Provide incentives to retain teachers

Teachers in some poor countries are not paid enough to live on

C. A. R.

In Liberia, where a family needs at least US$10 per day, teachers are paid only US$6 a day.

Liberia

Guinea Bissau

D.R. Congo

Madagascar

Zambia

Uganda

Mozambique

Comoros

Rwanda

Chad

Guinea

Sierra Leone

Gambia

Togo

Niger

Mali

Congo

S. Tome/Principe

Burundi

Cameroon

Burkina Faso

Malawi

Benin

Angola

Senegal

Cape Verde

 Côte d'Ivoire

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Slovak Republic

Poland

U. R. Tanzania

Mauritania

Hungary

Estonia

Nigeria

Kenya

Mexico

Morocco

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Daily salary of a primary school teacher, 2011 PPP US$

Source: Pole de Dakar database; OECD (2013b).

slide25

Strategy4: Provide incentives to retain teachers

Many West African countries have a teaching force made up largely of people on short-term contracts

Share of total primary teacher workforce (%)

100

90

80

70

-

60

50

40

30

20

10

Rwanda

Senegal

0

Guinea Bissau

Guinea

Côte d'Ivoire

Madagascar

Burkina Faso

Congo

Gambia

C.A.R

Uganda

Togo

Benin

Comoros

Cameroon

Burundi

Malawi

Chad

Niger

Mali

Civil servant

Contract

Source: Pôle de Dakar database.

policy recommendations2
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS:

Provide incentives to retain the best teachers

  • Teachers should be paid enough to meet at least their basic needs, and offered the best possible working conditions.
  • Teachers also need an attractive career path that rewards those who address diversity and support weak students.
slide27

Strengthen teacher governance

Measures are needed to address teacher misconduct:

  • to tackle gender-based violence
  • to reduce teacher absenteeism
  • to prevent teachers offering private tuition to their own students.
slide28

Provide appropriate curriculum & assessment strategies

Policy-makers must ensure teachers are supported by strategies that:

  • Support learning from the earliest years delivered at an appropriate pace
  • Provide education in relevant languages
  • Promote inclusion through the curriculum
  • Provide accelerated second-chance programmes
  • Identify and support low achievers with classroom assessment
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