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The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Central Processing Unit (CPU). The Central Processing Unit is a silicon chip that is the ‘brain’ of of a computer system. . It executes program instructions and data and controls all the devices within the machine. It’s internal organisation ( architecture ) consists of 3 main parts:.

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The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit is a silicon chip that is the ‘brain’ of of a computer system.

It executes program instructions and data and controls all the devices within the machine

It’s internal organisation (architecture) consists of 3 main parts:

  • Control unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic and Logic unit (ALU)
  • Registers

Lesson 3 The CPU

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AMD Athlon XP 2200 +

Lesson 3 The CPU

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Address bus

Memory Address Register

Other registers

Data bus

Memory Data Register

Main Memory

Control Bus (Read / Write)

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

Control Unit

Clock pulses

Electronic clock

Inside the CPU

Lesson 3 The CPU

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The Control Unit

The CU sends signals to other parts of the computer

It manages fetch, decode and execute program instructions.

It synchronises the whole system by telling devices what to do and when to do it

Lesson 3 The CPU

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The Arithmetic and Logic Unit

The ALU is where data is actually processed in the CPU

Processing data in the ALU involves doing arithmetic calculations e.g. add, subtract, multiply, divide etc.

It also involves logical comparisons like AND, OR etc. using electronic circuitry

The ALU uses special arithmetic registers to temporarily store data and results of calculations e.g. the accumulator

Lesson 3 The CPU

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The Registers

The Registers are very fast storage locations inside the processor itself. There are many registers including :

  • memory address register (MAR) – holds the address of a location in memory
  • memory data register (MDR) – holds data just read from or written to memory
  • program counter (PC) – holds the address of the next instruction to be fetched
  • Instruction register (IR) – holds the current instruction being executed
  • general purpose registers – can be used by programmers

Lesson 3 The CPU