Civics & Economics Top 100 What every student should know to pass the Civics & Economics EOC Goal 6
Goal 6: The learner will explain why laws are needed and how they are enacted, implemented, and enforced at the national, state, and local levels.
Foundations of Law • Code of Hammurabi – • the earliest legal code known in its entirety • Ten Commandments – • ten injunctions given to Moses, serving as the basis of Mosaic Law • Justinian Codes – • the collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I
Types of Laws • Common law – • a body of law based on judges’ decisions • Criminal law – • the group of laws that tell which acts are crimes, how accused persons should be tried in court, and how crimes should be punished • Civil law – • the group of laws that help settle disagreements between people
Types of Laws • Constitutional law – • a body of statutory and case law based on, concerns, or interprets a constitution • Administrative law – • the body of rules, regulations, orders, and decisions created by administrative agencies of government • Statutory law – • the body of laws created by legislative statutes • International law – • the body of rules that nations generally recognize as binding in their conduct toward one another.
Creation of Laws • The early leaders of our nation knew that it was important to establish a set of laws for the nation. • Laws must be fair, reasonable, and understandable.
Lobbying Procedures Interest groups work to convince senators and representatives to support bills that help their members and to oppose bill that hurt them. This is done by hiring lobbyists, people who represent interest groups.
Mass Media • Newspapers, motion pictures, radio, television, and magazines, all of which have the technical capacity to deliver information to millions of people.
Consequences of Breaking the Law • A major purpose of laws is to keep the peace and prevent violent acts. • Laws set punishments that are meant to discourage potential criminals from such acts as murder, assault, or robbery.
Types of Punishments • Probation • Juvenile detention • Community service • House arrest • Prison • Boot camp
Criminal Trial Process 1. Arrest – - Police arrest and book suspect 2. Preliminary Hearing – - Suspect appears before a judge, bail is set 3. Indictment – - Grand jury hears evidence and formally charges the suspect with a crime 4. Arraignment – - Defendant pleads not guilty, trial date is set. OR Defendant pleads guilty and accepts a plea bargain. 5. Trial – - Prosecution and defense present cases to jury. Jury reaches verdict. 6. Acquittal – - Defendant found not guilty and goes free. OR Sentencing – - Defendant found guilty, judge sentences defendant.
Civil Trial • Plaintiff’s attorney files a complaint • Court sends a to defendant • Defendant’s attorney files a written answer • Attorneys for both sides exchange • Attorneys for plaintiff and defendant argue case in court • Court gives a verdict summons pleadings
Law Enforcement Agencies • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) • State Bureau of Investigation (SBI) • Municipal or county law enforcement
Independent Agencies There are three types of independent agencies: • Executive Agencies are under the direct control of the President. (NASA, EPA) • Regulatory Commissions make and carry out rules for certain business or economic activities. (FCC, CPSC) • Government Corporations are like private businesses, but provide public services. (US Postal Service)
Regulatory Commissions • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) monitors the purity, effectiveness, and labeling of food, drugs, and cosmetics. • The Federal Communications Commission • (FCC) makes rules for radio and television stations. • The Consumer Product Safety Commission • (CPSC) sets safety standards for products.
Informed Citizenry • “Ignorance of the law is no excuse.”
Civics & Economics Top 100 What every student should know to pass the Civics & Economics EOC Goal 7
Goal 7: The learner will investigate how and why individuals and groups make economic choices.
Factors of Production • Resources necessary to produce goods and services • The four factors of production are natural resources, labor, capital, and entrepreneurs.
Natural Resources • Gifts of nature that make production possible
Labor • Human effort directed toward producing goods and services
Capital • Previously manufactured goods used to make other goods and services
Entrepreneurs • Individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
Scarcity • Not having enough resources to produce all of the goods and services we would like to have
Trade-offs • The alternative you face if you decide to do one thing rather than another
Opportunity Costs • The cost of the next best alternative use of time and money when choosing to do one thing rather than another
Law of Diminishing Returns • The tendency for a continuing application of effort or skill toward a particular project or goal to decline in effectiveness after a certain level of result has been achieved.
Marginal Utility • The additional satisfaction a consumer gains from consuming one more unit of a good or service.
Productivity • The degree to which resources are being used efficiently to produce goods and services
Specialization • When people, businesses, regions and/or nations concentrate on goods and services that they can produce better than anyone else
Division of Labor • The breaking down of a job into separate, smaller tasks to be performed individually
Needs • Requirements for survival, such as food, clothing, and shelter
Wants • Things we would like to have, such as entertainment, vacations, and items that make life comfortable and enjoyable
Cost-Benefit Analysis • Economic model that compares the marginal costs and marginal benefits of a decision
Command Economy • An economic system in which the major economic decisions are made by the central government
Market Economy • An economic system in which individuals own the factors of production and make economic decisions through free interaction
Mixed Economy • An economic system combining the characteristics of more than one type of economy
Traditional Economy • An economic system in which the decisions of what, how, and for whom to produce are based on custom or habit
Civics & Economics Top 100 What every student should know to pass the Civics & Economics EOC Goal 8
Goal 8: The learner will analyze features of the economic system of the United States.
Economic Questions • Economics is the study of how we make decisions in a world where resources are limited. • WHAT to produce? • HOW to produce? • FOR WHOM to produce?
Free Enterprise System • Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
Circular Flow Model • Circular flow shows us that input from each sector and to each sector spurs on production and thus goods and services are created.
Supply • The amount of goods and services that producers are able and willing to sell at various prices during a specified time period • Law of Supply – the principle that suppliers will normally offer more for sale at higher prices and less at lower prices
Demand • The desire, willingness, and ability to buy a good or service • Law of Demand – the concept that people are normally willing to buy less of a product if the price is high and more of it if the price is low
Types of Income • Wages – Payment for labor or services to a worker, especially remuneration on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis or by the piece. • Salary – Fixed compensation for services, paid to a person on a regular basis.
Surplus • Situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded • Situation in which government spends less than it collects in revenue
Shortage • Situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied
Competition • The struggle that goes on between buyers and sellers to get the best products at the lowest prices
Types of Businesses • Sole Proprietorship – a business owned and operated by a single person • Partnership – a business owned by two or more people • Corporation – type of business organization owned by many people but treated by law as though it were a person