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Chapter 20- the Cold War & Postwar Changes 1945-1970

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Chapter 20- the Cold War & Postwar Changes 1945-1970. 20.2- The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe. Main Ideas As Soviet leader, Khrushchev initiated policies of de-Stalinization

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chapter 20 the cold war postwar changes 1945 1970

Chapter 20- the Cold War & Postwar Changes 1945-1970

20.2- The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

the soviet union eastern europe
The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe
  • Main Ideas
    • As Soviet leader, Khrushchev initiated policies of de-Stalinization
    • The Soviet Union faced revolts and protests in its attempt to gain and maintain control over Eastern Europe
  • Key Terms
    • heavy industry- the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines
    • de-Stalinization- the process of eliminating some of Stalin’s ruthless policies
the reign of stalin
The Reign of Stalin
  • The economy of the Soviet Union was devastated by World War II
  • Stalin used harsh tactics to control every aspect of Soviet society
    • all literary and scientific work had to conform to the political needs of the state
    • goods were produced almost exclusively for export
    • money from export goods was used to buy machinery and Western technology
the reign of stalin1
The Reign of Stalin
  • By the end of the 1950s the Soviet Union a became world power
    • new power plants, canals, and giant factories
    • heavy industryincreased
    • the testing of the hydrogen bomb in 1953
    • the launch of the first space satellite Sputnik I in 1957
  • Stalin died in 1953
the khrushchev era
The Khrushchev Era
  • After Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev became the chief policy maker in the Soviet Union
the khrushchev era1
The Khrushchev Era
  • Under Khrushchev, de-Stalinization was put in place
    • condemned Stalin for his “administrative violence, mass repression, and terror”
    • loosened government controls on literature
    • placed emphasis on producing consumer goods
    • the government destroyed pictures and statues of Stalin
    • places named after Stalin, such as Stalingrad and Stalin Peak, were renamed during this program to dishonor Stalin
the khrushchev era2
The Khrushchev Era
  • Khrushchev was forced into retirement in 1964
    • his foreign policy in Cuba failed
    • attempts to increase agricultural output failed
    • the industrial growth rate also declined
eastern europe behind the iron curtain
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain
  • After World War II, Soviet-controlled Communist governments took control of Eastern European countries
  • Eastern European satellite states instituted Soviet-type five-year plans with emphasis on heavy industry
    • They began to collectivize agriculture
    • They set up secret police and military forces
eastern europe behind the iron curtain1
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain
  • Exceptions to the pattern of Soviet dominance:
    • Albania, the Communist government grew increasingly independent of the Soviet Union
    • Yugoslavia, led by Tito, was an independent Communist state until Tito’s death in 1980.
eastern europe behind the iron curtain2
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain
  • Revolts against communism
    • After Stalin’s death many Eastern European states tried to make reforms
    • The Soviet Union, however, made it clear that it would not allow its Eastern European satellites to become independent
    • In 1956 revolts against communism erupted in Poland, and a series of reforms were adopted
    • Fearful of a Soviet armed response, however, the Poles pledged to remain loyal to the Warsaw Pact
eastern europe behind the iron curtain3
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain
  • Imre Nagy
    • Hungarian leader
    • declared Hungary a free nation in 1956
    • Soviet troops attacked Budapest and reestablished control of the country
  • Alexander Dubček
    • first secretary of the Communist party in Czechoslovakia
    • introduced reforms to the country, including freedom of speech and press
    • the Soviet Army invaded Czechoslovakia, crushed the reform movement, and reestablished Soviet control
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