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Development of variable-focus lens with liquid-membrane-liquid structure and 30 mm optical aperture. (e). (a). (f). (b). Lihui Wang, Hiromasa Oku, Masatoshi Ishikawa. University of Tokyo, Japan wanglihuiamos@gmail.com. (g). (c). (h). (d). Research Background. Normal Lenses :

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development of variable focus lens with liquid membrane liquid structure and 30 mm optical aperture

Development of variable-focus lens with liquid-membrane-liquid structure and 30 mm optical aperture

(e)

(a)

(f)

(b)

Lihui Wang,

Hiromasa Oku,

Masatoshi Ishikawa.

University of Tokyo, Japan

wanglihuiamos@gmail.com

(g)

(c)

(h)

(d)

research background
Research Background
  • Normal Lenses:
  • Single lens with Variable-focus:

plastic

glasses

wikipeida.org

related research
Related Research
    • Liquid-Membrane Lens
    • single liquid chamber
    • deformable wall (1or2)
    • [−6.0 +7.6] diopters
    • optical aperture 7mm
    • 1ms response time
  • Liquid-Liquid Lens
    • [-50 +50] diopters
    • optical aperture 3.0mm
    • wavefront error 80.3nm

at 109mm focal length

    • 2ms response time

H Oku, et al. Optics Express, 2004

Dynamorph Lens

  • Driving mechanisms:
  • pressure, electreowetting, dielectric

H Oku, et al. Applied Physics Letters, 2009

un solved problem lens aperture
Un-solved Problem (LensAperture)
  • Liquid-Liquid Structure (review Dynamorph Lens)
    • Capillary Length:
    • If D(lens aperture) < < lc(capillary length), Gravity Effect is negligible.

Interface tension: 34.8mN/m

Density water: 0.997g/cm3 capillary length=12.7mm >> 3mm (lens aperture)

Density PDMS :0.975g/cm3

  • What if Large Optical Aperture!
  • Key Point: Capillary Length  Surface Tension???

okay

Dynamorph Lens

research purpose
Research Purpose
  • Variable-Focus Liquid Lens with Large Optical Aperture
    • Structures of liquid lens (30mm)
    • Sufficient optical performance
  • Theoretical analysis
    • Membrane Deformation
    • Spherical Deformation
    • Symmetry Deformation
  • Experiment
    • A prototype of liquid lens with 30m aperture
    • Evaluate optical performance

Next slide

Following

Next slide

lens structure
Lens Structure
  • Liquid-Membrane-Liquid Structure
    • elastic force surface tension  capillary length

Liquid-Liquid Lens

  • optical performance

Liquid

Membrane

Liquid-Membrane Lens

  • large aperture

Liquid

membrane deformation 1 2
Membrane Deformation 1/2
  • 30mm diameter with boundary clamped elastic membrane
    • Silicon membrane parameters:
      • 30mm aperture, 0.1mm thickness, 1.8MPa Young modulus, 0.45 Passion ratio
  • Assuming uniform pressure acting on one side
    • uniform pressure of [1 10 20 40 60 80 100 130] Pa
membrane deformation 2 2
Membrane Deformation 2/2
  • Recall capillary length
    • assuming Water and PDMS infused (referring Dynamorph Lens )

Elastic force average

Elastic force

Capillary length

liquid-membrane-liquid lens

liquid-membrane lens

liquid-membrane-liquidis a possible solution

Liquid-Membrane-LiquidvsLiquid-Membrane

spherical deformation 1 2
Spherical Deformation 1/2
  • Comparison of 3mm variable liquid lenses

Liquid-Liquid LensvsLiquid-Membrane-Liquid Lens

  • Evaluate Criteria: wavefront error Peak-to-Valley (PV)

Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE)

  • Liquid-Liquid Lens
  • Aperture 3mm
  • Liquid-Liquid interface
  • Wavefront error (PV, RMSE)
  • New Model
  • Aperture 3mm
  • Liquid-Membrane-Liquid
  • Wavefront error (PV, RMSE)

Data from exist paper

Experiment data

Data from simulation

Modeling 3mm silicon membrane

Acting pre-gravity map of water-PDMS

External pressure loaded

3D deformation optical path lengths

Optical path lengths  spherical surface

H Oku, et al. Applied Physics Letters, 2009

spherical deformation 2 2
Spherical Deformation 2/2
  • Comparison of 3mm variable liquid lens

Liquid-Liquid LensvsLiquid-Membrane-Liquid Lens

Peak-to-Valley (PV)

shows smaller wavefront error

liquid-liquid lens

liquid-membrane-liquid lens

Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE)

liquid-liquid lens

liquid-membrane-liquid lens

symmetry deformation 1 2
Symmetry Deformation 1/2
  • External pressure  elastic force  capillary length
    • elastic force relays on external pressure loaded.
    • gradually increasing
    • Conform by Finite Element Simulation (ANSYS)
      • membrane parameters:
        • 30mm aperture, 0.1mm thickness, boundary clamped
        • 1.8MPa Young modulus, 0.45 Passion ratio
      • infused liquid pair
        • Water and PDMS liquid
      • meshing the membrane into 1425 elements
      • large deformation under [0 ~ 120]Pa
symmetry deformation 2 2
Symmetry Deformation 2/2
  • External Pressure : 0Pa 5Pa 8Pa 10Pa 20Pa … …
  • Symmetry Deformation
  • external pressure >>26Pa
  • point of maximum deformation
  • moves to center step by step

Water: 0.997g/cm3

PDMS: 0.975g/cm3

----------------------------------

0.022g/cm3

experiment 1 2
Experiment 1/2
  • Prototype
    • Liquid-Membrane-Liquid Lens
      • with 30mm aperture
experiment 2 2
Experiment 2/2
  • Optical performance
    • USAF1951 Chart
    • Resolution at f=150 mm
    • System magnified 2X

Liquid Lens

Imager

Light

USAF1951

window

window

membrane

liquid 1 liquid 2

1.5f

3f

Horizontal bar

(Group4, Element1)

System magnified 2X

Vertical bar

(Group4, Element2)

Comparing with 11.6 lp/mm spherical interface(ZEMAX)

conclusion and future work
Conclusion and Future Work
  • Variable-Focal Liquid Lens with Large Optical Aperture
    • Liquid-Membrane-Liquid Lens with 30mm aperture
    • Calculation & Simulation  Feasibility
    • Experiments  Prototype & Resolution
  • Future Work
    • Available liquid pairs.
    • Application ???
acknowledgement
Acknowledgement
  • Co-authors & Supervisors:
    • Dr. HiromasaOku,
    • Prof. Masatoshi Ishikawa.