3rd International Conference on Textiles and Clothing organized by Institute of Textile & Industrial Sciences, UMT Lahore with collaboration of “Society of dyers & Colorists” and “The Textile Institute, UK”. “THE STUDY OF SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOR OF RIGID AND STRETCHABLE DENIM FABRICS APPLYING DIFFERENT WASHING TECHNIQUES” Dr. Nabeel Amin Director/Asst. Professor (Textiles) Institute of Textile and Industrial Sciences, UMT, Lahore. Nadeem Afraz Lecturer (Textile Engineering) Bahauddin Zakariya University College of Textile Engineering, Multan.
Abstract • The shrinkage margins of garment before washing are set in blanket form, and after washing these shrinkage margins do not meet pre-calculated shrinkage values and ultimately garment “fit to body” out sizes marginally.
Objectives of Studies • To control the dimension variations of garments • To control the size chart variations • To improve MARKER efficiency. • To reduce rejection rate . • To identify shrinkage changes with respect to the type of fabric.
Shrinkage Behavior • The term shrinkage can simply be defined as a change in the dimensions of a fabric or garment, there are number of factors that influence fabrics • One major factor is that fabric Shrink because it under stresses during manufacturing and in relaxed form while garment washed.
Experiment Design Fabric Selection: • Denim fabric is manufactured in a number of types but with the view of preciseness we select its major kinds which are in 3/1 Right hand twill (RHT) Rigid and Stretchable with weight range 9 Ozs./yd .
Shrinkage Test • Shrinkage percentage was calculated in both warp and weft directions by using AATCC test method 135-2004. Conditioning of Samples: Temperature: 21oC ± 1oC Relative humidity: 65% ± 2% Time: 4 hours before and 4 hours after wash • Two form of denim were used to compare shrinkage: • Blankets • Panels/Leg tubes.
Recipe for Enzyme De-sizing De-sizing Procedure • Liquor Ratio 1:10 • Temperature @ 140 °F • Process time 15 minutes • Loading Capacity 120 Kgs • Extraction at 450 RPM. • Rinse time 3 minutes
Recipe for Stone Wash Stone Wash Procedure • Temperature @ 140 °F • Process time 40 minutes • Rinse time 3 minutes • Loading Capacity 120 Kgs • Extraction at 450 RPM • Rinse time 3 minutes
Recipe for Enzyme wash Enzyme Washing Procedure • Temperature @ 140 °F • Process time 40 minutes • Rinse time 3 minutes • Loading Capacity 120 Kgs • Extraction at 450 RPM
Recipe for Bleach Wash Bleach Washing Procedure • Temperature @ 140 °F • Process time 40 minutes • Rinse time 3 minutes • Loading Capacity 120 Kgs • Extraction at 450 RPM • Rinse time 3 minutes
Results and Discussion • In general Shrinkage is greater in Blanket Form than in Panels in all washing techniques. • Enzymatic De-sizing causes minimum Shrinkage in Stretchable fabric either in Blanket or Panel form. • Stretchable fabric shrinks more in weft because Lycra is used in it.
Recommendations • It is recommended that in denim garment manufacturing the shrinkage should be measured in panel form rather than in blanket form and size chart be made accordingly based on the shrinkage rate occur in panel followed by specific washing technique demanded by customer. • The shrinkage margins may be set in size chart of garment as per required wash and garment will ultimately “fit to size” that will ultimately reduce rejection and alteration rate of the garment unit • Shrinkage margin may be considered in MARKER Making-- that will improve marker efficiency and reduce wastage while calculating fabric for an order.
Future works • Study of construction shrinkage of the denim fabric. • Study of processing shrinkage to make formula to calculate shrinkage on each washing technique. • Study of performance properties of denim fabric/ garment applying different washing techniques.