Today’s Agenda • Bellwork – Reading Quiz • Topic: Muckrakers • Graphic Organizer/Stations • Closure – Menti • Historical IDs covered today: • Muckraker • Ida Tarbell • Upton Sinclair • Progressivism • Pure Food Drug and Act • Meat Inspection Act
Bellwork • Reading Quiz • You need a pencil and a pen • There are 13 questions. You will have no more than 10 minutes.
A time period between 1890 – 1920 that saw widespread social activism and political reform. The main goals of the Progressive movement were to eliminate problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption. The Progressive Era (1) 1890-1920
Goals of the Muckrakers • A muckraker is a term used to characterize reform-minded American journalists who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt. • To “cure” America of its illnesses (that developed out of the I.R.)
Thomas Nast • Cartoonist • Exposed Boss Tweed’s political machine in NY through his cartoons • Led to Tweed’ convection for embezzlement and died in prison. • Exposed the patronage system. • Tweed would be arrested, in part, because of the efforts of Nast
Muckraker Stations • At each group’s table there is a folder. Inside the folder is Progressive Era Note Page 2 and one of the muckrakers. • You will be given 5-7 minutes to read over document associated with your Muckraker. • As you read fill out your graphic organizer (in pencil) • When the time goes of put the muckraker handout back into the folder and pass the folder to your clockwise.
What Gilded Age corruption is being exposed in this excerpt? • Be a little careful, please! The hall is dark and you might stumble over the children pitching pennies back there. Not that it would hurt them; kicks and cuffs are their daily diet. They have little else. Here where the hall turns and dives into utter darkness is a step, and another, another. A flight of stairs. You can feel your way, if you cannot see it. Close? Yes! What would you have? All the fresh air that ever enters these stairs comes from the hall-door that is forever slamming, and from the windows of dark bedrooms that in turn receive from the stairs their sole supply of the elements God meant to be free, but man deals out with such miserable hand. … Here is a door. Listen! That short hacking cough, that tiny, helpless wail--what do they mean? They mean that the soiled bow of white you saw on the door downstairs will have another story to tell--Oh! a sadly familiar story--before the day is at an end. The child is dying with measles. With half a chance it might have lived; but it had none. That dark bedroom killed it. • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Jacob Riis • How the Other Half Lives • Exposed living conditions of immigrants in America • NYC passed building codes to promote safety and health. • (Some) Results: • The Tenement House Law • mandated improved sanitary conditions • fire escapes • ventilation • and access to natural light
Jane Addams • Wrote 20 Years at the Hull House, advocated for child labor laws & social reforms. • The Hull House: a place under privileged individuals could go for help in Chicago, IL. • Results: helped to expose the gap between the rich and the poor, promoted Social Gospel
What Gilded Age corruption is being exposed in this excerpt? • “The Machine controls the whole process of voting, and practices fraud at every stage. The assessor’s list is the voting list, and the assessor is the machine’s man … The assessor pads the list with the names of dead dogs, children, and non-existent persons. … The repeating [of voters] is done boldly, for the machine controls the election officers … The police are forbidden by law to stand within thirty feet of the polls, but they are at the box and they are there to see that the machine’s orders are obeyed and that repeaters whom they help to furnish are permitted to vote without “intimidation” on the names they, the police, have supplied.” • Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of Cities
Lincoln Steffens • Work: The Shame of Cities • Subject Matter: A collection of articles that exposed political corruption in America. (like that of political machines.) • Results: Led to the Cities using city commissioners and city managers to over see the gov’t. • Thomas Nast is another example of a Muckraker who exposed political corruption. • President TR will become a police commissioner of NYC
Ida Tarbell • Work: The History of the Standard Oil Company • Subject Matter: Exposed the ruthless business tactics of Rockefeller • Result: Led to the famous Supreme Court case of Standard Oil v. U.S. (1911), the company was declared a monopoly and broken up. • Clayton-Anti Trust Act
Robert La Follette • Work: Politician, Progressive • Wisconsin Governor • Subject Matter: Politician who advocated from reform for state and federal gov’ts. • Result: Pushed for the direct election of senators, the initiative, referendum, recall, & income tax
Achievements • Lang lasting results of La Follette’s efforts • Initiative and Referendum • Initiative a people created law • Referendum the people vote on the law they created • Recall • Voters can vote an elected official out of office before their term is up if the voters believe the official is not doing their job.
What Gilded Age corruption is being exposed in this excerpt? • There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was mouldy and white—it would be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them, they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together. This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts, and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one—there were things that went into the sausage in comparison with which a poisoned rat was a tidbit. There was no place for the men to wash their hands before they ate their dinner, and so they made a practice of washing them in the water that was to be ladled into the sausage. There were the butt-ends of smoked meat, and the scraps of corned beef, and all the odds and ends of the waste of the plants, that would be dumped into old barrels in the cellar and left there. Under the system of rigid economy which the packers enforced, there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water—and cart load after cart load of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast. • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
Upton Sinclair • Work: The Jungle • Subject Matter: Exposed the working conditions of the meat packing industry • Results • Meat Inspection Act (still enforced today) • Pure Food and Drug Act (still enforced today)
Closure • Go to Menti.com and enter this code: • You are to rank the 6 Muckrakers covered in class. Based on your reading of their work and the brief discussion on the results of their work, rank the muckrakers from MOST influential to LEAST influential.
Theodore Roosevelt • Work: politician, President • Subject Matter: conservation, food safety, ‘trust buster’, stopping political corruption • Results: Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act, brought down 44 trust , created National Parks
TR’s Progressive Policies • TR’s “Square Deal” • TR advocated for the fair treatment of the average American citizen • This is evident by his policies that stood up for the rights of the American ‘blue’ collar worker.
Taft • Created the initiative for the 16th and 17th Amendments • Income Tax (16) • Direct Elections of Senators (17th) • Wilson • Federal Trade Commission • the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices, monopoly. • Clayton Anti – Trust Act 1914 • Aimed at catching monopolies/trust in their infancies • Federal Reserve System • Central Bank
Achievements • 16th Amendment • Congress can tax incomes “Congress shall have the power to lay and collect taxes on income …”
Achievements • 17th Amendment • “The Senate … shall be composed of two senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each senator shall have one vote …”
Achievements • 18th Amendment • Prohibition – makes the consumption or creation of alcohol illegal.
Achievements • 19th Amendment • Suffrage – Women’s right to vote
Exit slip • Use a blank piece of paper. • Pretend your friend was absent from class and they ask you to explain the lesson. What would you tell them about today’s lesson? • Be sure to include what time period was discussed. • Who was discussed. • and what reforms they were after.
Primary System An election that narrows the field of candidates for an up coming general election. Achievements
Relationship Change • Status: It’s Complicated but improving • Citizens had … • A bigger voice • More power • And were more involved • Government had … • To pay attention the citizens because their job were on the line