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Chapter 19 FTP: Transferring Files Across a Network. FTP Client JumpStart: Downloading Files Using fip Notes Anonymous FTP Automatic Login Binary versus ASCII Transfer Mode ftp Specifics FTP Server (vsftpd) JumpStart: Starting a vsftpd Server Testing the Setup

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chapter 19 ftp transferring files across a network
Chapter 19 FTP: Transferring Files Across a Network
  • FTP Client
  • JumpStart: Downloading Files Using fip Notes
  • Anonymous FTP
  • Automatic Login
  • Binary versus ASCII Transfer Mode
  • ftp Specifics
  • FTP Server (vsftpd)
  • JumpStart: Starting a vsftpd Server
  • Testing the Setup
  • vsftpd.conf: Configuring vsftpd
  • ftp has been around as one of the original TCP/IP protocols
  • ftp and vsftpd – this chapter will focus more on vsftpd since it is provided with Fedora
  • Security – vsftp is secure, ftp is not
  • Connections – passive is client initiated connection, active is if server initiates
ftp client
FTP Client
  • ftp – command line, Linux or Windows
  • sftp – secure ftp, part of OpenSSH
  • gftp – graphical ftp, supports ftp, SSH, and HTTP
  • ncftp – Fedora text-based utility with more features than standard ftp
umpstart downloading files using ftp
]umpStart: Downloading Files Using ftp
  • Basic commands:
    • ftp
    • ftp> open
    • ftp> user
    • ftp> get (mget)
    • ftp> put (mput)
    • ftp> prompt
    • ftp> hash
    • ftp> ascii or binary
    • ftp> cd and lcd
    • ftp> quit or bye
anonymous ftp
Anonymous FTP
  • Can use user id of either
    • anonymous or
    • ftp (some systems)
  • Enter email address as password if necessary, see automatic login below
  • ftp server can use reverse DNS to verify
automatic login
Automatic Login
  • Place ~/.netrc file in your home directory to allow automatic login:

$ cat .netrc

machine bravo login jimbo password xyz123

  • Make readable only by owner!
  • Can defeat at ftp server config file
binary versus ascii transfer mode
Binary versus ASCII Transfer Mode
  • Binary mode (default for some systems) provides a byte by byte exact transfer
  • ASCII (ascii) mode converts end of line characters between Windows and Unix systems
    • Can also use dos2unix or unix2dos
    • Security – always use binary mode
ftp specifics
ftp Specifics
  • Format – ftp [-options] server
  • Options:
    • -i interactive
    • -g globbing, file name expansion with wild cards
    • -v verbose
    • -n no automatic login with .netrc
ftp commands
ftp commands
  • Shell command = !command (!ls)
  • Transfer files:
    • append local remote
    • get remote-file [new local file name]
    • mget remote-file-list [wild cards allowed]
    • put local-file [new remote file name]
    • mput remote-file-list [wild cards allowed]
    • newer remote-file [new local file name]
    • reget remote-file [new local file name]
  • ascii – sets transfer mode to ASCII
  • binary – sets transfer mode to binary
  • close – quits ftp server without leaving ftp
  • open [server name] – opens new ftp connection
  • hash – shows hash marks (#) during transfers
  • prompt – toggles prompts for transfers
  • passive – toggles between passive and active
  • user – sign in as different user
  • quit or bye – exits ftp site and closes ftp
  • cd - changes directories on ftp server/site
  • lcd – changes local directories on your machine
  • Do not use ftp> ! cd newdirectory
  • Remember that the environment does not change in a spawned process!
  • chmod – to change permissions on files
  • delete – to delete remote file(s) if allowed
  • mdelete remote-file-list
display information
Display Information
  • dir – like ls but has file option:
    • dir [remote-dir] file
    • (file saved on your local system with contents of the remote directory listing)
  • ls – same as dir but with more information
  • help – shows commands
  • pwd – print working remote directory
  • status – status information
  • verbose – to see all that is happening
ftp server vsftpd
FTP Server (vsftpd)
  • The vsftpd package is installed by default on Red Hat systems
  • Modes:
    • Standalone – set listen parameter to “yes” in vsftpd.conf file
    • Normal – use xinetd superserver to start and stop, set to normal by default
jumpstart starting a vsftpd server
JumpStart: Starting a vsftpd Server
  • Make sure service is running:

# /sbin/service vsftpd status

vsftpd (pid 3022) is running . . .

  • Check permissions in /var/ftp directory

# ls –ld /var/ftp

drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 Aug 12 /var/ftp

vsftpd conf configuring vsftpd
vsftpd.conf: Configuring vsftpd
  • Standalone – listen=yes
  • listen_port (default 21)
  • listen_address – defaults to any network interface
  • max_clients – set to 0 for unlimited
  • max_per_ip – set to 0 for any IP address allowed
logging in
Logging in
  • userlist_enable – yes further checks userlist_deny, no does not check the list, more secure is no
  • userlist_deny – list of users denied access
  • userlist_file – name of user list file
  • local_enable – allows users in /etc/passwd file to log onto system
anonymous users
Anonymous Users
  • anonymous_enable – yes allows anonymous
  • no_anon_password – yes won’t ask for password
  • deny_email_enable – yes checks if email password

user is denied access to system

  • banned_email_file – list of denied users by email


working directories and chroot jail
Working Directories and chroot jail
  • chroot_list_enable – sets user in jail either in their home directory or in /var/ftp
  • chroot_local_user – if set to no local user can move around directory structure
  • chroot_list_file – naem of the file if chroot_list_file is set to yes
  • passwd_chroot_enable – allows local user to cd to home directory (/home/./jones)
  • secure_chroot_dir – empty directory that is not writeable by user ftp, a secure chroot jail
  • dirmessage_enable – yes displays .message
  • banner_file – file that is displayed at login, overrides ftpd_banner
  • ftpd_banner – overrides the standard vsftpd greeting banner at connection time
  • And speaking of banners: