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010101010010010110101001001000101111010 Radicaal digitaal in de openbare bibliotheek: de intermediair-bibliotheek ?! 011010100001010010100100100010101110010. Paul Nieuwenhuysen Vrije Universiteit Brussel Information and Library Science, University of Antwerp Belgium

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slide1

010101010010010110101001001000101111010 Radicaal digitaalin de openbare bibliotheek: de intermediair-bibliotheek?!011010100001010010100100100010101110010

Paul Nieuwenhuysen

  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • Information and Library Science, University of Antwerp

Belgium

Lecture presented at the one-day workshop organised by V.V.B.A.D. Section Public Libraries, 14 November 2003, in EHSAL Brussels, Belgium

slide2
These slides are available from

http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/presentations/

(note: BIBLIO and not biblio)

the library as intermediary
The library as intermediary

Writer / Author /

Creator / Sender

Primary sources / systems: mainly

Journal articles / Books / Electronic mail / Online sources /...

Reader /User / Receiver

Secondary sources / systems: mainly

Reference works (printed, CD-ROM, online)

Libraries (offering books, library catalogues, access to Internet…)

the library as intermediary1
The library as intermediary
  • Printed books and journals become relatively less important in libraries, when access to information sources becomes more and more feasible through the Internet and the WWW.
the library as intermediary2
The library as intermediary

Classical libraries Hybrid libraries! Digital libraries?

the librarian actingmore as as intermediary

contents summary structure overview of this lecture part 1
- contents - summary - structure- overview of this lecturePart 1
  • WHY? The framework: Evolution and trends towards digital libraries
  • WHAT?Activities in hybrid libraries
  • WHERE?From physical, local libraries to more virtual libraries
  • WHEN?When should libraries adapt to a more digital world?
contents summary structure of this lecture part 2

- contents - summary - structure- overviewof this lecturePart 2

- contents - summary - structure of this lecturePart 2
  • HOW?Tools and methods for digital libraries and librarians
  • HOW MUCH?How much does it cost?
  • WHO?Desirable skills of today’s librarians
  • FOR WHOM?Who uses digital services?
  • CONCLUSIONS
slide8

WHY?

The framework: Evolution towards digital libraries and future trends

libraries evolution to what
Libraries: evolution to what?
  • Let us have a look at important functions – key functions – of librariesand consider how these evolve.
libraries evolution of key functions
Libraries: evolution of key functions?
  • Collection development (hard copy documents)
  • Cataloguing + classification (hard copy documents)
  • User services: reference, user education…
  • Providing a physical, local meeting place
  • Conservation / preservation (hard copy documents)

 ?

 ?

 ?

  • ?

 ?

libraries effects of more ict
Libraries: effects of more ICT
  • The fast evolution to powerful and affordable applications of information and communication technology (ICT) has several effects on libraries and information centers.
libraries effects of more ict1
Libraries: effects of more ICT

1. More applications of ICT to manage classical, printed, hard-copy books and journals

ordering of documents; cataloguing of documents;

online public access catalogue;

administration concerning users;

lending;

interlending;

financial management;

communication by email; WWW sites of libraries...

libraries effects of more ict2
Libraries: effects of more ICT

2. Providing access not only to hard-copy documents, but also to digital, computer- and network-based information sources.

the digital electronic virtual library scheme
The digital/electronic/virtual library: scheme

Structures, practices, and methodsof physical libraries and archives

Digital / electronic / virtuallibrary

Computing power that is decreasing in price

Communication capabilitiesof electronic networking

libraries and information centres future trends
Libraries and information centres: future trends

If it is not on the Internet, available free of charge, then it does “not exist”.

libraries and information centres future trends1
Libraries and information centres: future trends
  • More information delivery directly from producer to end-user, even without involvement of a library or information centre as intermediary.
slide17

WHAT?

Activities and management of hybrid libraries

libraries and information centres evolution of their roles
Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles
  • Collection development (hard copy documents)
  • 1. Applying more and more ICT in collection development of hard copy documents 2. Acquiring access to digital information+ conversion of important local documents to digital format (computer files) and making these accessible through the Internet
libraries and information centres evolution of their roles1
Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles
  • Organizing access to hard-copy documents:
    • cataloguing
    • classification
    • physical placement
  • 1. Applying more and more ICT to organize access and to manage hard copy documents
  • 2. Organizing access to digital information, which includes providing access to computers connected to the Internet
libraries and information centres evolution of their roles2
Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles
  • User services: reference, user education…

 + Offering services in a computer-network environmentOPAC available throught the Internet; WWW site of the library; creating and offering guides to information sources, and in particular to locally relevant information; virtual reference services;…

libraries and information centres evolution of their roles3
Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles
  • Providing a physical, local meeting place

 + Presence on the WWW, accessible from everywhereThis offers further possibilities like more or less automatic personalisation of the services, depending on the user’s address, age, expressed interests, previous activities related to the library services.

libraries and information centres evolution of their roles4
Libraries and information centres: evolution of their roles
  • Conservation / preservation (hard copy documents)

 + Conservation of digital documentsor ensuring continuous access to digital documents

collection development hard copy digital
“Collection development”: hard copy + digital

User / Reader

Collection development

Library or information centre

Hard copy

Electronic, digital resources

collection development hard copy digital1
“Collection development”: hard copy + digital

L

User / Reader

Searching

Hard copy

Electronic, digital resources

organiz ing access to information in hybrid libraries
Organizing access to information in hybrid libraries

J

User / Reader

Searching + using

Hard copy + electronic, digital resourcesin an integrated, hybrid library

organiz ing access to information in libraries the problem
Organizing access to information in libraries: the problem
  • Users should be guided in finding their way through the maze, through the labyrinth that is formed by all available information systems and services.
integrating access to all types of information
Integrating access to all types of information

Web site created, offered, and maintained by a library or information centre

1 or several catalogues / databasescreated, offered, and maintained by a library or information centre

current awareness services provided by libraries
Current awareness servicesprovided by libraries
  • The incoming flow of new available information is huge.
  • The potential user/reader has limited time.
  • So information centres can provide a current awareness service (alerting service):based on the interests of the user, the library sends the user
    • descriptions of new information sources (plus an explanation of how to obtain the full version)
    • OR directly the full version
organizing access to information in information centres user studies
Organizing access to information in information centres: user studies
  • A few web site users should be selected from various categories of the user community and the way they work with your web site should be studied. The observation of their behaviour and the comments by those users can be useful and interesting to improve your web site.
organiz ing access to information the value of information
Organizing access to information: the value of information?
  • What is the value of information sources?Which price is reasonable and acceptable for access to information sources?
  • These are simple questions but the answers are difficult.Debates on these questions by all stakeholders are going on almost continuously.
organiz ing access to information the value of structured information
Organizing access to information: the value of structured information?
  • A related but different question is:What is the value of a good guide to information?Which price is reasonable and acceptable for ORGANISING / STRUCTURING information sources?
  • How do decision makers see this?
where

WHERE?

From local, physical libraries to more virtual, invisible information centers

libraries and information centres future trend becoming invisible
Libraries and information centres: future trend = becoming invisible
  • Conservation of hard copy documents becomes a smaller task in comparison with other activities in libraries.
  • Services offered by libraries become more virtual, less clearly visible.Is the ideal library invisible?Who wants to pay for an invisible library?
from local physical libraries to invisible information centers
From local, physical libraries to invisible information centers
  • From visible, human librarians to more invisible information experts?Who wants to pay for invisible librarians?

?

the physical location of the library becomes less important
The physical location of the library becomes less important
  • The physical location of documents is an irrelevant concept when the documents are based on computer-networks and the Internet in particular.
  • The physical location of information intermediaries of a library is not important anymore, when reference services and guidance is offered by information intermediaries / experts through the Internet, by using an application like WWW or email. “Virtual reference services”
from local libraries to regional information services
From local libraries to regional information services
  • When physical location is less important, then besides local, physical libraries, an important contribution can be made by more regional, international, virtual, digital, invisible libraries and information services that focus
    • on a particular information subject, or
    • on a particular user community
  • Organizing such a service by further cooperation among classical libraries is one possible scenario.
  • However, such services do not have to be associated anymore with more traditional, classical libraries.
local physical libraries can still be attractive
Local, physical libraries can still be attractive
  • Physical libraries can of course remain attractive when they offer
    • many classical documents that are not available through the Internet
    • an interesting, attractive space for contemplation, study, entertainment, self-development, meetings…
  • Of course the library budget is limited and can be spent only once in a hybrid library: either on the physical library, either on the digital library
how to make hybrid libraries attractive places
How to make hybrid libraries “attractive places”?
  • Physical libraries can be made attractive and usable by good architects / designers.
  • Digital libraries can be made attractive and usable by good information architects / web designers.

Creating a good interface user  informationis crucial.

slide41

WHEN?

When should libraries adapt to a more digital world?

when to adapt to the changing information landscape
When to adapt to the changing information landscape?
  • Yesterday
  • Today
  • Now
  • Tomorrow
  • Always
  • Permanently
  • Continuously

because “Change is the only constant”

slide43

HOW?

Tools and methods for today’s libraries and librarians

tools and methods for today s librarian
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Integrated library management system, including
    • databases related to documents, users, other data
    • online pubic access catalogue(s)
    • integration with related computer programs
    • integration with Internet
    • integration with the WWW site of the library
tools and methods for today s librarian1
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Internet

+ WWW and electronic mail as applications

tools and methods for today s librarian2
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Secured computers for access by the public to Internet-based information resources
tools and methods for today s librarian3
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Portal software to integrate access to distributed databases in one search action, as far as possible, in spite of technical difficulties, such as differences in the applied
    • Internet application protocols for communication and retrieval (telnet, HTTP, Z39.50, OAI-MHP…)
    • metadata schemes in the databases to improve retrieval (classifications, thesaurus systems, ontologies…)
tools and methods for today s librarian4
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • OpenURL resolving software to guide users to the most suitable sources that are appropriate for the specific library or specific user, for instance to cope with the multiple-copy problem (such as SFX software from Ex-Libris or V-link software from VUBIS-GEAC)
tools and methods for today s librarian5
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Software for current awareness services, that includes functions to manage interest profiles of users.
  • Ideally this is well integrated with
    • the Internet,
    • e-mail,
    • the WWW,
    • the integrated library management system
tools and methods for today s librarian6
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Electronic learning environment softwareto assist users in their personal education and growth?
tools and methods for today s librarian7
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Filtering software to protect the user from low-quality or inappropriate sources?
  • Of course here we come close to the sensitive subject of censorship with all its advantages and disadvantages.
  • Deciding on what is low quality or inappropriate for a particular user is not easy.
tools and methods for today s librarian8
Tools and methods for today’s librarian
  • Personalisation software to create a more personal interface to the information services that are offered through the Internet and the WWW.
slide53

HOW?

Management of libraries when ICT is moving fast

is more co operation among organisations desirable
Is more co-operation among organisations desirable?
  • Any single library cannot well cope with the fast evolution due to ICT.
  • Co-operation among organisations should be considered:
    • public libraries  scientific libraries
    • libraries  computer centers / WWW designers
    • libraries  electronic learning centers
  • Professional organisations can play a role here,like V.V.B.A.D. in Flanders, Belgium.
can classical library personnel cope well with more ict
Can classical library personnel cope well with more ICT?
  • The increasing role of ICT in libary can have serious consequences for library
    • personnel
    • management
how much will it cost to evolve towards digital libraries
How much will it cost to evolve towards digital libraries?
  • Clearly ICT applications cost money:
    • hardware
    • software
    • skilled personnel
    • maintenance
    • user guidance
    • ...
  • However, budgets normally do NOT grow.
slide58

WHO?

Desirable skills of librarians

classical character of librarians no computers please
Classical character of librarians: “no computers please”

The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers:

  • interest and background in human sciences; less interested in computers and technology
skills of today s information manager more computers please
Skills of today’s information manager: “more computers please”

Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more:

  • computer usage skills; information and communication technology skills
classical character of librarians document oriented
Classical character of librarians: document-oriented

The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers:

  • focused on static documents, cataloguing, conservation; less on relations and communication with users
skills of today s information manager people oriented
Skills of today’s information manager: people-oriented

Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more:

  • communication skills: to communicate with users/clients and with higher management
  • teaching skills: to guide users/clients to today’s information sources and services
classical character of librarians static
Classical character of librarians: static

The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers:

  • attracted by a static, constant, conservative, “valuable” working environment; less interested in more dynamic, “fashionable” systems with a short life
skills of today s information manager dynamic
Skills of today’s information manager: dynamic

Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more:

  • ability to adapt to continuous change;willingness to work in a dynamic environment and to learn continuously;
  • working methods that are always “under construction”
  • from collecting information “just in case” to offering appropriate information “just in time”
classical character of librarians passive
Classical character of librarians: passive

The classical, typical character of librarians and information managers:

  • focusing on static documents leads to static, passive views and behaviour;collecting information just in case someone may need it
skills of today s information manager pro active and flexible
Skills of today’s information manager: pro-active and flexible

Desirable skills of librarians and information managers include more and more:

  • focusing on users means acting in a pro-active way: anticipating needs and developing appropriate services well in time; acting flexible
for whom

FOR WHOM?

The clients of libraries

the clients of digital and hybrid libraries
The clients of digital and hybrid libraries
  • “Last but not least”, as they say: Who are the clients of the evolving library?
the clients of digital and hybrid libraries1
The clients of digital and hybrid libraries
  • Ideally all kinds of people? Ideally all people?
the clients of digital and hybrid libraries2
The clients of digital and hybrid libraries
  • To reach and to serve these people, the library should offer more guidance.
  • Not many people can “see” an “invisible library”.
the clients of digital and hybrid libraries3
The clients of digital and hybrid libraries
  • Of course not all people can be turned into customers.Nothing new here: this has always been the case for public and other libraries.
the clients of digital and hybrid libraries4
The clients of digital and hybrid libraries
  • A more pro-active approach can be appropriate to bring clients to the library.
conclusions related to the evolution of libraries
Conclusions related to the evolution of libraries
  • WHY? The ICT revolution
  • WHAT? 1. More ICT applications 2. More digital information sources
  • WHERE? Libraries also on the WWW
  • WHEN? Yesterday (or at least ASAP)
  • HOW? More and more tools based on ICT
  • HOW MUCH? Not less; we can only dream of more
  • WHO? ICT-minded; adaptive; pro-active
  • FOR WHOM? Ideally for everyone