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Novels/Short Stories. NOVEL. A long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between one hundred and five hundred pages Uses the elements of storytelling: PLOT, CHARACTER, SETTING, THEME, and POINT OF VIEW. SHORT STORY.

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Novel
NOVEL

  • A long fictional story, whose length is normally somewhere between one hundred and five hundred pages

  • Uses the elements of storytelling: PLOT, CHARACTER, SETTING, THEME, and POINT OF VIEW


Short story
SHORT STORY

  • A short fictional prose narrative that usually makes up about 10 to 20 book pages

  • Follows the elements of plot-introduction/exposition, complications/rising action, climax, falling action, resolution

  • 1st written in the 19th century

  • More limited than novels-usually have only 1 or 2 major characters and one important setting


Novels short stories
PLOT

  • The series of related events that make up a story

  • INTRODUCTION/ EXPOSITION: tells us who the characters are and, usually, what their conflict is

  • COMPLICATIONS/RISING ACTION: arise as the characters take steps to resolve the conflict

  • CLIMAX: the most exciting moment in the story, when the outcome is decided one way or another

  • FALLING ACTION: final part of a story when the characters’ problems are solved

  • RESOLUTION: the story is closed


Conflict
CONFLICT

  • A struggle or clash between opposing characters, or between opposing forces.

  • INTERNAL CONFLICT: a struggle occurs within the character’s own mind

    • Man vs. self

  • EXTERNAL CONFLICT: a character struggles against some outside force

    • Man vs. man

    • Man vs. nature

    • Man vs. society


Point of view
POINT OF VIEW

  • The vantage point from which a story is told

  • OMNISCIENT: All knowing, the narrator knows everything about the characters and their problems; past, present, and future

  • 3RD PERSON LIMITED: the narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of just one character

  • 1ST PERSON: one of the characters is actually telling the story, using the personal pronoun “I”


Irony
IRONY

  • A contrast between what appears to be true and what is really true or between expectation and reality

  • VERBAL IRONY-contrast between what is said or written and what is really meant

  • SITUATIONAL IRONY-occurs when what happens is very different from what we expected would happen

  • DRAMATIC IRONY-occurs when the audience or reader knows something that a character does not know


Setting
SETTING

  • The time and place of a story or play


Atmosphere mood
ATMOSPHERE/MOOD

  • The overall mood or emotion of a work of literature

  • Ex: scary, dreamy, happy, sad

  • Atmosphere is created through a writer’s use of words to create images, sounds, and descriptions that convey a particular feeling.


Character
CHARACTER

  • A person, animal, or thing in a story, play, or other literary work.

  • Static character: one who does NOT change very much throughout the story or piece of work

  • Dynamic character: one who changes as a result of the story’s events.


Protagonist
PROTAGONIST

  • The main character in a work of literature

  • ANTAGONIST: a character who is opposing the protagonist


Characterization
CHARACTERIZATION

  • The process of revealing the personality of a character.

  • 6 ways to reveal characterization

    • By letting us HEAR THE CHARACTER SPEAK

    • By DESCRIBING how the character LOOKS AND DRESSES

    • By letting us LISTEN to the CHARACTER’S INNER THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS

    • By revealing what OTHER PEOPLE IN THE STORY THINK OR SAY about the character

    • By showing us WHAT THE CHARACTER DOES

    • By TELLING US DIRECTLY what the character’s personality is like (i.e. cruel, kind, sneaky, brave, and so on)


Foreshadowing
FORESHADOWING

  • The use of clues or hints suggesting events that will occur later in the plot

  • Used to build suspense or anxiety in the reader


Suspense
SUSPENSE

  • The uncertainty or anxiety we feel about what will happen next in a story


Flashback
FLASHBACK

  • Interruption in the present action of a plot to flash backward and tell what happened at an earlier time

  • FLASH FORWARD: a break in the movement of a plot to an episode in the future


Novels short stories
TONE

  • The attitude a writer takes toward the audience, a subject, or a character

  • Conveyed through the writer’s choice of words and detail

  • EX: humorous, sad, serious


Theme
THEME

  • A main idea of a work of literature

  • NOT the same as a subject

  • Theme must be expressed in a statement or sentence, not just one word