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1. Electric and Electronic Principles

2. Circuit symbols

3. Diode Earth Resistors Transformer LED Op Amp Transistor Thermistor Circuit symbols

4. EMF • Electromotive "force" is not considered a force, as force is measured in newtons, but a potential, or energy per unit of charge, measured in volts • PD • Potential difference measured between two points (eg across a component) if a measure of the energy of electric charge between the two points Definitions

5. Current • The flow of electric charge • Resistance • The resistance to current • Capacitors • Store charge in circuit Definitions

6. The ammeter is in series with components in the circuit The voltmeter is connected in parallel with the components in the circuit Simple circuit

7. Current stays the same all the way round a series circuit Current in a series circuit

8. The voltage (pd) across the battery terminals is shared between all the components in the circuit voltage in a series circuit

9. voltage in a series circuit

10. The total current is shared by the components in a parallel circuit Current in a parallel circuit

11. Resistance

12. Electron drift

13. The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that conductor Resistance

14. αΔT = ΔR/R₀ • ΔR = αR₀ΔT Temperature coefficient of resistance

15. Question • A copper wire has a resistance of 400 Ω at 0o C • 1, Calculate the resistance at 30oC if the temperature coefficient of copper is 0.0043/oC Question

16. If mercury is cooled below 4.1 K, it loses all electric resistance • The critical temperature for superconductors is the temperature at which the electrical resistivity of a metal drops to zero. The transition is so sudden and complete that it appears to be a transition to a different phase of matter;. Several materials exhibit superconducting phase transitions at low temperatures. superconductors

17. The thermistors we normally refer to are NTC where the resistance increases when the temperature decreases PTC thermistor resistors Increase resistance with Increasing temperature

18. In the above test the open circuit The open circuit voltage was measured. The decade box was then set to a maximum and connected as the load. The resistance of the box was reduced so that the voltage across it decreased by 10% each time. From this information the load current and the power in the load was calculated for each voltage. Graphs of load voltage VL against load current IL and power in the load PL against load resistance RL were plotted.

19. Graph of VL against IL VO/C VL IL Calculating the gradient of the graph gives us the internal resistance of the source

20. Graph of PL against RL PL The peak (maximum power) is where the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance of the source RL RL = RS

21. Using Kirchoff’s second Law The sum of all the PD’s around the circuit is equal to the e.m.f. of the source. If the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance then the PD across each must be the same. Thus VL must be half the e.m.f. of the cell r VI R VL This means that maximum power is obtained when the load resistance is equal to the internal resistance. As was show in the experiment

22. The need for Maximum power transfer is when there is a high source impedance and power is scarce. This is contrasted to when power is abundant (i.e. low source impedance)and a constant voltage is available Power is inversely proportional to load resistance. That is the higher the load resistance the lower the power

23. V out = V in x R2/ R1 +R2 Basic voltage divider circuit

24. Internal or source resistance is always less than the lowest of R1 or R2 When measured in a half voltage test

25. This system is effectively a variable voltage divider

26. Capacitors

27. Capacitors

28. Capacitance is typified by a parallel plate arrangement and is defined in terms of charge storage: Capacitors

29. A dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electricfield. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field Capacitors

30. A dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in a conductorbut only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. Capacitors

31. Capacitors

32. In an insulating material, the maximum electric field strength that it can withstand intrinsically without breaking down, i.e., without experiencing failure of its insulating properties. Field strength E = V/d • V = potential across the plates • D = distance between the plates Capacitors

33. In a test on a 1mm thickness of polymer, it is ruptured by an applied voltage of 20kV. • a) Calculate the dielectric strength of the material • b) Describe what happens in the material when the rupture occurs c) Explain why a solid insulator with a hairline crack through it breaks down at a lower voltage than the rated voltage Capacitors

34. The permittivity of a substance is a characteristic which describes how it affects any electric field set up in it. A high permittivity tends to reduce any electric field present. We can increase the capacitance of a capacitor by increasing the permittivity of the dielectric material. Permittivity

35. The permittivity of free space (or a vacuum), e0, has a value of 8.9 × 10-12 F m-1. • The absolute permittivity ε of all other insulating materials is greater than ε0. • The ratio ε / ε0 is called relative permittivity of the material and is denoted by K (or εr). • K = ε / ε0 = Absolute permittivity of medium / Absolute permittivity of air Permittivity

36. Permittivity

37. Capacitors

38. The energy stored in a capacitor can be expressed as W = 1/2 C V2 (1) where W = energy stored (Joules) C = capacitance (Farad) V = potential difference (Voltage) Energy stored in a capacitor

39. A 2.0kV power supply unit has an internal 2.6μF capacitor connected across the output. • a) Calculate the charge stored • b) Calculate the energy stored • c) State how stored charge creates a hazard • d) Describe how the hazard may be reduced Example question

40. A variable capacitor is a capacitor whose capacitance may be intentionally and repeatedly changed mechanically or electronically Variable capacitor

41. Types of variable capacitors • Mechanically controlled In mechanically controlled variable capacitors, the distance between the plates, or the amount of plate surface area which overlaps, can be changed Variable capacitor

42. Electronically controlled • The thickness of the depletion layer of a reverse-biased semiconductor diode varies with the DC voltage applied across the diode. Any diode exhibits this effect (including p/n junctions in transistors) • Their use is limited to low signal amplitudes Variable capacitor

43. Transducers • In a capacitor microphone (commonly known as a condenser microphone), the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, and vibrations produce changes in the distance between the diaphragm and a fixed plate, changing the voltage maintained across the capacitor plates. Variable capacitor

44. An air-spaced variable capacitor has semi-circular plates. Minimum capacitance is 20pF (at 0°) and maximum capacitance is 400pF when the shaft is rotated 180°. a) Sketch a graph of capacitance against angle of rotation of the shaft b) Calculate the capacitance when the shaft is rotated 90° c) Calculate the maximum capacitance if a polymer film of relative permittivity 2.3 is placed in the airspace between the plates

45. CT = C1 + C2etc Capacitors in parallel

46. 1/CT = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Capacitors in series

47. C = Q/V Q = CV Q = CVmax(1 – e-t/RC) V max Voltage I = (V/R) – e-t/RC current Time Capacitor Charging