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Cavity is lined by a thin serous membrane called the Peritoneum Parietal layer – lines abdominal wall Visceral layer – covers organs Encloses; liver, gal bladder, ovaries, spleen, stomach, most of intestines..etc. ABDOMINAL CONTENT.

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Abdominal content

ABDOMINAL CONTENT

PERITONITIS – inflammation of the peritoneal cavity caused by infections



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PLANES, QUADRIENTS AND REGIONS

ABDOMINAL CONTENT

4 QUADRIENT METHOD

1 - RUQ

2 – RLQ

3 – LUQ

4 – LLQ


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

PLANES, QUADRIENTS AND REGIONS…

4 QUADRIENT METHOD

1 – RUQ - Liver, gal bladder,

2 – RLQ - Liver

3 – LUQ – spleen, pancreas

4 – LLQ – spleen, ovaries


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  • Nine Region Method

  • Divided by (2) horizontal (transverse) lines

  • Divided by (2) vertical lines

  • (2)vertical planes are parallel to the MSP

  • Run vertically up both ASIS’s

  • (1)transverse plane runs horizon. through L-1

  • (1)transverse plane runs horiz. through L-5

  • divides the abdominopelvic cavity into (9) regions

ABDOMINAL CONTENT


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

9 REGIONS

SEE HANDOUT


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

Body Habitus

Hypersthenic - massive proportions (5%)

Sthenic – normal proportions (50%)

Hyposthenic – combination of hypersthenic and sthenic (35%)

Asthenic – long thin body cavity and structures (10%)


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

VARIOUS BODY TYPES…


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

  • PLANES

  • Transpyloric plane – through L-1

  • Subcostal plane – lowest point of costal margin, L-3

  • Intertubercular plane – level of tubercles of iliac crest @ SP. of L-5

  • Lateral planes – vertical planes on either side of MSP which bisect inguinal ligaments

  • Interspinous plane – through rt. and lt. ASIS, @ level of 2nd sacral seg,

  • Supracristal plane – highest point of iliac crest, L-4


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

1. STOMACH

  • Organ of digestion

  • breaks down food

  • located just under diaphragm

  • divided into body and pylorus

  • lies in epigastric and lt. hypogastric region (LUQ)

  • size and shape vary from patient to patient

  • little to no liquid absorption, except…..


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

1. STOMACH


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

1. STOMACH

MARKINGS

  • Cardiac orifice level of 7th CC 1” lt. of MSP

  • Pylorus – transverse plane of L-1

  • Fundas – 5th intercostal space

  • Duodenum – above umbilicus


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

2. PANCREAS

  • stretches obliquely against posterior abdomen wall

  • more to lt. than rt. of MSP

  • level of L-1 – L-2

  • head of pancreas lies within loop of duodenum

  • epigastric and hypochondriac regions

  • 13 cm long (adults)

  • exocrine and endocrine gland

  • accommodates CBD


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

2. PANCREAS


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

3. LIVER

  • RUQ

  • largest endocrine gland

  • triangular shaped, mostly on rt., some crosses over to the lt.

  • mostly in rt. Hypochondrium and epigastric regions

  • produces approx. 1 pt. of bile per day

  • holds approx. 1. pt. of blood

  • divided into (4) lobes

  • very complex organ



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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

4. Spleen

  • LUQ

  • posterior and along long axis of 10th rib

  • highly vascular organ, between the stomach and diaphragm

  • lt. hypochondriac region

  • part of the lymphatic sys.

  • defense

  • 12 cm long, 7 cm wide and 3 cm thick

  • function has baffled physiologists for over 100 years

  • dark purple in color



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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

5. Gallbladder

- RUQ

- fundas at level of transpyloric plane

- pear shaped gland, stores bile

- receives bile from the liver

- adult holds 32 mL of bile

- during digestion of fats the GB contracts

- gallstones


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

5. Gallbladder



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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 1


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 1


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 2


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 2


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 3


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 3


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 3


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 4


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 4


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 5


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 5


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 6


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 6


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 7


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 7


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 8


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 8


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 9


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 9


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 10


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 10


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 11


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 11


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 12


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 12


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 13


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 13


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CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 14


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

CT ABDOMINAL AXIAL 14


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

5. Common Bile Duct (CBD)

  • Begins at level of 8th intercostal space

  • approximately 1in. from MSP (rat)

  • approximately 3in. long

  • formed by the juncture of the cystic and hepatic ducts.


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

5. Common Bile Duct (CBD)


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

5. Common Bile Duct (CBD)


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

Small Intestine – Absorption

6. Jejunum

  • Intermediate or middle portion of the S.I.

  • slightly larger the ileum

  • absorption of nutrients


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

6. Jejunum


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

6. Ileum

  • Third lower distal portion of the small intestine

  • opens up into medial side of cecum (valve)

  • absorption



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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

7. Duodenum

  • shortest, widest and most fixed portion of the S.I.

  • connects to pyloric valve of stomach

  • 25 cm long

  • divided into superior, descending, horizontal and ascending portions


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

7. Duodenum


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

8. Ascending Colon

- Rt lower quadrant

- connects to transverse colon at Hepatic flexure


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

Large bowl excretion and some absorption

9. Transverse Colon

  • - rt. to lt. in midline

  • dips down to umbilical region

  • ends at level of 8th cc on lt. side


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

10. Descending Colon

- runs along lt. plane of abd. Cavity

- ends in inguinal ligament


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

11. Recto-Sigmoid Colon

- hypogasrtic region

- behind the bladder


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

Review Small Bowl

  • (3) portions

  • Duodenum

  • Jejunum

  • Ileum

ABSORPTION…..


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

Review large Bowl

  • Cecum

  • Ascending colon

  • Transverse colon

  • Descending colon

  • Recto-Sigmoid colon

Excretion …..some absorption






















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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

12.Kidneys

  • - (2) bean shaped organs

  • Filter waste from urine

  • rt. is lower than lt.

  • upper poles opposite T-11

  • lower poles opposite L-3



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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

13. Ureters

  • Lie on either side of ml.

  • turn medially entering bladder at a point 1 and ¼ in. above s.p.

  • connect kidneys to bladder


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

13. Ureters


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

14. Bladder

- Hypogastric region\

- Stores urine

- contains trigone area

- lower border corresponds with s.p.

- The urinary bladder usually holds 400–620 mL of urine


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

14. Bladder


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ABDOMINAL CONTENT

15. Ovaries

  • (2)

  • level of S-2, iliac spines

  • interspinous plane

  • An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. They are usually purple. It is often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    15. Ovaries


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    15. Uterus

    The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    15. Uterus


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    15. Testicles

    The testicle (from Latintestis, meaning "witness",[1]pluraltestes) is the male generative gland in animals

    Function

    Like the ovaries (to which they are homologous), testicles are components of both the reproductive system (being gonads) and the endocrine system (being endocrine glands


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    15. Testicles


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    16. Prostate

    The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalianreproductive system.

    The prostate differs considerably among species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically.

    Function

    The main function of the prostate is to store and secrete a clear, slightly alkaline (pH 7.29) fluid that constitutes 10-30% of the volume of the seminal fluid that, along with spermatozoa, constitutes semen. The rest of the seminal fluid is produced by the two seminal vesicles.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    16. Prostate


























































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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    Abdominal Aorta - T-12 to bifurcation @ L-4

    - slightly to the left of the MSP

    - transversely along supracristal plane

    The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of descending aorta (of the thorax).


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    Abdominal Aorta

    Angio. MRI

    Angio. CT

    Axial CT


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    Celiac Artery

    • anterior to aorta

    • T-12

    • 1 inch above transpyloric plane

    The celiac artery, also known as the celiac trunk and also spelled as coeliac, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta and branches from the aorta around the level of the T12 vertebra in humans.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    Celiac Artery


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    Celiac Artery Branches

    • Gastric Artery – lt. of cardiac orifice @ 7thcc – stomach

    • Spleenic Artery – lt. of cardiac orifice, 4in, above celiac – spleen

    • Hepatic Artery – rt. of cardiac orifice - liver


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    Celiac Artery Branches

    • Gastric Artery


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    2. Spleenic Artery


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    3. Hepatic Artery


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    4. Hepatic Artery - from the rt. Of the aorta – supplies liver


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    5. Superior Mesenteric Artery

    starts in midline of transverse plane ½” below celiac artery @ L-1


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    6. Inferior Mesenteric artery

    starts a ¼ in. above the supracristal plane.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    7. Renal artery

    from aorta ½ in. below transpyloric plane at L-2


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    8. Common Iliac Artery

    starts @ L-4, bifurcation and runs into femoral point.

    1/3 down the brim of the iliac bone divided into internal &external iliacs


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    9. IVC runs parallel to aorta more to the rt. of the MSP.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    10. Portal Vein - Formed by the junction of the Spleenic and superior mesenteric veins. @ L-2 it runs to the rt. Enters the liver @ the Porta Hepatis. Runs along the hepatic art. And the CBD.

    The porta hepatis or transverse fissure of the liver is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm long, extending transversely across the under surface of the left portion of the right lobe of the liver, nearer its posterior surface than its anterior border.


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    VESSELS

    10. Portal Vein


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    ABDOMINAL CONTENT

    Abdomen Muscles

    any of the muscles of the anterolateral walls of the abdominal cavity, composed of three flat muscular sheets, from without inward: external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis, supplemented in front on each side of the midline by rectus abdominis.




















































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